Current Affairs 2nd Class

Applied Mathematics   In this chapter, we will apply our mathematical knowledge to solve various problem. Some of these problems/ along with their solutions are given below.  
  •          Example:
What is the time in the clock?         (a) 6 : 45                                                           (b) 10 : 10       (c) 1 : 50                                                           (d) All the above (e) None of these Ans.     (c) Explanation: Clearly hour hands is in between 1 and 2, and minute hand is at 10. Hence option (c) is the correct answer.  
  •          Example:
Which box have maximum number of lighted candles? (a) Box B                                                          (b) Box A        (c) Box C                                                           (d) All the above (e) None of these Ans.     (b) Explanation: Clearly Box A has maximum number of lighted candles.  
  •          Example:
How many numbers given in the following figure have 4 at the units place? (a) 4                              more...

Getting Started With Computer   Introduction Computers are now available in almost every sector. The popularity of a computer is increased due to its fastest speed and error free output. It is an electronic machine that helps us to make our work easier and faster by assisting us in many ways. A computer user should also be familiar with process for starting and shutting down the computer properly. In this chapter we will study that, how a computer can be started for its working and how a person can utilize the resources provided with the hardware and software of a computer.   Parts of Computer: As our body is made up of different parts (head, neck, legs and hands), in the same way a computer is also made up of different parts. The three main parts of computer are the keyboard, monitor and the CPU (Central Processing Unit).   Keyboard: The keyboard is an input device used to enter data and information. The keyboard layout is similar to a typewriter with additional keys for other functions.   Mouse: The mouse is a pointing device used to position a cursor on a computer screen. There are two buttons on a mouse left and right click button. The buttons on the mouse is pressed to give the command using the monitor of a computer. Mostly left button of a mouse is used, the right button is used for some special function, such as, to view the drop down menu of a system or application folder or file in which different functions about the same file and folders can be done.     Monitor The monitor is visual component of the computer. It displays information to the user in a pictorial form. Without monitor, user can not view anything because, an user can only see the task on monitor that is connected to the CPU.   CPU The CPU is commonly known as ?brain computer? The CPU more...

Introduction to Windows 10   Introduction In the Window environment, all the other programs are managed by operating system is called Windows. In order to start and work, every computer needs an operating system. For the proper working of the computer, an user can understand about the feature of the operating system that is installed in the computer.   There are many operating systems in the market such as Mac OS, LINUX and UNIX but Windows 10 is the latest popular operating system that controls the working of the computer.   Windows can come in different versions (such as Windows 7, Windows 2000 and Windows Vista, Windows 10).   Windows 10 is the latest version from Microsoft Windows 10 is a personal computer operating system developed and released by Microsoft on July 2015 as part of the Windows NT. This Operating System includes improved support for biometric authentication through the Windows Hello. The full screen start menu is used in this mode, similarly to Windows 8, but scrolls vertically instead of horizontally.   Desktop Screen When you first switch on your machine, the Windows operating system loads and the first screen which appears is called the Desktop.     Icons and Mouse pointer Icons are small graphical images that can represent your computer's programs, files, folders and printers. The mouse pointer can be easily located on the desktop if connected to the CPU tower. A desktop contains a task bar which is by default located at the bottom of the desktop.     Introduction to Windows 10:- v  Start Menu: A start menu is simply a helpful user menu. Clicking the Start button or Windows button on the desktop brings up a menu.   The following is the list of application that comes in Windows 10.  
  • Calendar
  • Mail
  • Microsoft Edge
  • Photos
  • Search
  • People
  • more...

Computer Processing and Processing Devices   Introduction A Computer processing device is the part of the computer that receives input, processes the input and gives output. A computer can add large numbers and make other complex calculations and give you the result in just a few seconds.   The body of the computer is the hardware such as CPU, VDU, etc. These are the mechanical and electronic parts which can be seen and touched. A computer executes commands and instructions.   Almost all the systems and the machines that we find around us work in the same way. They accept some input. These inputs are processed in a specific manner to produce some Output. For example, we take oranges, put them in the juicer, switch it on and finally we get orange juice.   I-P-O Cycle The IPO Cycle is termed as Input-Processing-Output cycle. A computer receives data as input, processes it, stores it and then produces output.   This Input-Process-Output (I ? P - O) cycle is represented in the following figure:                                        
  • Input: The devices that allows data and instructions to be entered in a computer (such as keyboard, mouse, scanner)
  • Process: The computer performs useful operations by manipulating the data in many ways. This manipulation is called processing.
  • Output: The devices that allows information to be represented (i.e., given: - out) to the user, such as display screen or printer.
  Input Devices:   An input devices is any machine that feeds data into a computer.  
  • Mouse: A mouse is a hand handled pointing device for computer, involving small object fitted with one or more buttons.
  • Joystick: This is a computer input device especially helpful when playing computer games.
  • Microphone: The microphone is used to more...

Keyboard and Mouse Usage   Introduction We know that keyboard and mouse of a computer is an input device. Keys on the keyboard has unique function. Some keys are used for typing letters and some are for numeric typing. The function keys on the keyboard are used for performing the specific task, suet as, the uses of F1 keys in most of the application is to open the help window.   The mouse sends information to the computer. A typical mouse had two buttons. At the top of the device you will find a left and right button which allows for "click". There is a scrolling wheel between the two buttons. In this chapter, we will study about the usage of keys on the keyboard and click on the mouse.   Keys of the Keyboard     The buttons on the keyboard of the computer are called keys. Generally, a keyboard has 104 or more keys. A keyboard has different groups of keys such as Alphabet keys Numeric keys and Function keys. Let us discuss about these different types of keys in detail.   Alphabet Keys     The alphabet keys are, A, B, C?? Z. These keys help us to write words and sentences on the computer. In English there are 26 alphabets from A to Z that?s why there are 26 alphabet keys on the keyboard.   Numeric Keys The number keys contain the numbers from 0 - 9. You can write numbers using them. Computer keyboard contains two groups of number keys from 0 to 9. First group is located above the QWERTYUIOP keys row and second group is located below the indicators. The first group of number keys can be used if numlock keys is activated or not. Whereas, second group of keys are only used when numlock is activated.     Function Keys A keyboard usually has 12 function more...

  What is Data and Information?   Introduction Data is unorganized facts that need to be processed.     Data in computing is the group of numbers, letters, punctuations, etc. When data is given to the computer, the computer analyzes for types of operation to be done for the given data. After performing the required operation by the processing part of computer, the information is displayed.   The Instruction and data are permanently stored in secondary storage device, such as, hard disk, compact disk and loaded in to the primary memory such as, RAM when computer boot up.   Types of Data  Data is divided into three types:  
  • Alphabetic data
  • Numeric data
  • Alphanumeric data
  Alphabetic Data There are twenty - six alphabets in English language. These 26 alphabets are used to -present alphabetic data.   Numeric Data Numeric data contains ten digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and decimal point, also called base ten number system. All these three types of data is converted in machine language in the form of binary bits or 0's and 1's in the computer.   Alphanumeric Data Alphanumeric data is used to represent alphabetic data, numeric data, special characters 'such as / \ *, ?@) and symbols.   Information Information is organized or processed data. For example, 85, 90 and 30 are numbers i.e. data. By themselves, they do not reveal what they are. However, if they are written as:   When data is processed and presented in an organized way to make it useful it is called information.               Subject            English              Science              Mathematics             Marks               85              more...

Usage of Computers in our World   Introduction Different types of computers are used in every field of life. The PCs (Personal Computers) or the Home Computer is used at home. Laptop computer also known as the Notebook computer is used by the touring officials. In your school's computer lab, you can find a group of computers connected together, which is called LAN (Local Area Network). Some important companies manufacturing computers are Apple Computers and IBM. IBM PC is very popular. The computer has become such an important part of our lives that we can find it almost everywhere. Some of the important applications of computers are as follows:   Using computer in Railways and Airlines         Computes are widely used in railways and airlines.    In Railways and Airlines computer are used for the following:
  • Computer in railways, play a very important role. Along with networking or internet made it so easy to keep track of the information such as the number of train, train name, number of seats in train, what is the present status of a ticket.
  • Computers in Airlines system, used to control passenger aircraft's and vehicles. It also control the activities of aeroplanes in the airways.
              Using Computers in Banks:     Computer in bank helped to reduce the use of paper work and thus saves valuable time.               In Banks computers are used for following:
  • The bank uses a computer to store a list of people and their accounts.
  • Today online banking become more popular. People do not have to go the bank as often they did it. Computers also helps to access customer data quickly.
  • By online processing, customer is also allowed to personal to create, update and maintain his/her records.
  • Withdrawing and deposit money with the help of ATM cards provided by banks.
  Using Computer in Hospitals:          Computers play a key role in hospitals. It has brought many changes in the field of health and medicine.                       In hospitals computer is used for the following:                    
  • Computers are the excellent means for storage of patient related data.
  • It helps in maintain detailed records of the medical history of patients.
  • It can keep track of prescriptions and billing information.
  • Computer software's are used for diagnosis of diseases.
  • Some of the complex surgeries can be performed with the aid of computers.
  Using Computers in Education: Computers are useful in education field. List of information provided by various educational websites guide the students and teachers for the practical more...

Paint Brush   Introduction Drawing and painting are wonderful activity for kids. Drawing with the help of pencil, sketch pen, wax pencil etc are very tedious and time consuming job. Most of the Windows operating system comes with the application Paint or Paint Brush. Paint or Paint Brush application is a part of the accessories and can be open by clicking in the start button of the task bar. This chapter includes how to use Paint for drawing pictures.   How to open a Paint Brush? Do the following steps to open MS-Paint application:
  • Click the start button in the lower left hand corner of the desktop Click, All programs, then Accessories, then click the Paint program
Or To open MS-Paint, Type Paint in the Search box on the task bar and then select Paint from the list of result.   MS-Paint Windows 10: -    
  • Title bar: It shows the title of the file you are working in.
  • Menu bar: It shows different functions you can do in paint brush.
  • Horizontal Scroll bar: It is a scroll bar at the bottom of a window or move window left and right.
  • Vertical Scroll bar: It is a scroll bar at the right side of a window or move window up and down.
  • Ribbon: It is located at the just below of menu bar. The purpose of the ribbon is to provide quick access to commonly used tasks within each program.
  • Drawing board: It is your workspace. It is like a plain white paper. You make your drawings here.
  Let's see the functions of the Paint tools Star Tool (Free Form Tool) It is known as Free Form select. It helps to select irregular area of the drawing .   Rectangle Box Tool (Select Tool) It is called select tool. It selects portion of the drawing in a rectangle.   Eraser Tool Eraser tool helps to erase a part of the drawing. Select the eraser tool from the tool box md drag the mouse over the surface you want to remove.   Pencil Tool Pencil tool is like a pencil more...

Introduction to Wordpad   Introduction Microsoft wordpad is a basic word processor that comes with windows. Wordpad a program used to process format and store documents like letters, memo, reports curriculum vitae and many more. It is also capable of producing a print out of the end results. The Wordpad file is saved with extension .rtf. But it is more advanced than Microsoft notepad.   Steps to open wordpad in windows 10:  
  • Click on the windows button in the lower left hand corner of the Desktop.
  • Click All programs, then Accessories, then click the Wordpad
  Or To open Wordpad, Type ?WordPad? in the search box on the task bar and the select from the list of result.   WordPad Window:                
  • Title bar: The title bar at the top of the window. On the right hand side of the title bar, we have three important control buttons, Minimize, Maximize (restore) and Cancel button.
  • Menu bar: The menu bar below the title bar of WordPad. It consist of following menus, File, Home and View menu button.
  • Toolbar: The toolbar is used for quick access. It contain some important tools used as short cut tools. These are like shortcut to New, Open, Save, Print, Print preview, Undo, Redo.
  • File Menu: This menu is used for functions like creating a new document, opening an already saved document, saving a document, printing and page set up.
  • Home Menu: This menu has a number of important groups like: Clipboard, Font, Paragraph, Insert and Editing.
            The clipboard groups contain cut, copy, paste option.
  • The Font group contain font, Bold, Italic, Underline, Strikethrough, Subscript, Superscript, Text color, Text highlight color and some other functions.
  • The Paragraph group contain bullets, paragraph alignment, indent setting, line spacing options.
  • The Insert group contain inserting picture, paint drawing, Date and time and insert object options.
  • The editing group contain Find, Replace and Select all option.
  • View Menu: The view menu is used for viewing (displaying) the following: Zoom in, Zoom out, Ruler, Status bar, Word wrap and measurement unit.

Definitions in Short   Introduction A computer is made of different types of parts. The name of these parts are different and naming of these parts are related with their functions. In this chapter, we will learn the definition of some difficult computer hardware and software related words that; used while we study about the computer.   Abacus An Abacus is an earliest calculating device. This device is also known as the first calculating device in the human history It is made up of beads sliding on wires.   Look at the following-picture of an Abacus:     Animation It is defined as the rapid display of sequence of images. Therefore, it is used for making film on cartoons in which each step of an action is drawn and using the rotating mechanism, it is rotated to display these images in sequence.   Look at the following picture of animated image:       Backup Backup is defined as the making copies of data. The backup data is restored when needed or main copy of data is lost due to system fail or corrupt data.     Look at the following picture, the process to open a backup and restore wizard in Window environment:     Software Bug Software bug is the incorrect program source code or incorrect code produced by compiler which may result the incorrect or unexpected result processed by the computer.   Byte more...

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