Current Affairs 2nd Class

Surrounding and Safety Rules

SURROUNDING AND SAFETY RULES     FUNDAMENTAL
• We live in our house with our family members. A society is formed in this way. Nearby living people becomes our neighbor. Neighbors help each other.
• Neighbors celebrate festivals and other rituals together.
• There are many services which are available in the neighborhood such as post office, bank, police station, fire station, hospital, market, railway station, school etc.
• There are many people who help us in different kind of works - chemist, green grocers, and black smiths, carpenter, tailor, Cobbler, plumber, electrician etc.
• Post office is the place where we post letter. We drop letters in the letter box. They are located in every town, village and city. We send things through parcel.
• Bank$\to$ It is an institution/ place where are we deposit money and can take them out when required. Bank take care of our money. We can make use of ATM to window money. ATM is an automatic machine that allows people to take out money any time.

• Police station$\to$There are police stations in every town to maintain the law and order of a place/country.

• Fire station$\to$ a fire station is a structure where firefighting apparatus are kept for any kind of emergency.

• Hospital$\to$A hospital is a place where the sick and the injured are taken for treatment. Doctor, nurses and other staff help us in treatment we are sick

• Market$\to$ A market is very busy place where people go to buy the articles of their need. There are many shops in a market.

• Railway station$\to$ Railway station us a place where trains come and go to different places. Railway is a place where trains stop. Some stations are small and some are big. It is a busy place. We book our tickets before boarding the train. Trains are the fastest and cheapest means of communication which are used to go distant places.
School$\to$ The most important part of one’s life is spent at school. We learn to write, read, sing, dance, respect, obey and love teachers. School is training ground for all virtues that makes a good citizens. more...

Living and Non-living things

LIVING AND NON-LIVING     FUNDAMENTALS
• Living things are organisms that have life e.g. plants, animals, insects, birds, human beings, microorganisms etc.
• Non- living things are things that don’t have life e.g. pen, bottle, door, computer, mobile etc.
• Differences between living and non-living things.

Living things Non-Living things
(a) Living organisms need food, air and water 1. Nom-living things do not need food, air and water.
(b) Living organisms grow. 2. Non-living things do not grow.
(c) Living organisms are sensitive, they respond to changes around them. 3. Non-living things are not sensitive, they do not respond to change around them.
(d) Living things can move on their own (some plants show movement) 4. Non-living things cannot move on their own.
more...

The Plant KIngdom

THE PLANT KINGDOM     CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANTS
• Plants are one of the oldest living organisms on the earth.
• Plants are living organisms which need air, water and sunlight to survive.
• Plants provide food to other living organisms.
• Plants play a very vital role as they provide oxygen for living organisms on earth for their survival.
• Plants gives us many things such as wood, medicines, paper, furniture etc.
• Plants helps in keeping environment fresh and cool.
• Plants are mainly of two types - terrestrial and aquatic.
• Plants which grow on the land are called terrestrial plants, e.g. papaya tree, mango tree, neem tree etc.
• Plants which grow in water are called aquatic plants, e.g. Water lily, lotus, bonsai etc.
• On the basis of structure, plants are divided into mosses plants, grasses, dicots and monocots.
• Dicots and monocots include big plants shrubs or bushes, climber, creepers etc.
• Big plants are tall, voluminous trees e.g. mango tree, banyan tree, oak tree, neem tree etc.
• Herbs are mainly used for flavor and scent and have medicinal value. They are used for cooking purpose, e.g. basil, tulsi leaves, spinach mint, coriander leaves.
• Shrubs or bushes are smaller woody plants and have and short stem. e.g. rose plant, cotton etc.
• Creepers plants grows along the soil surface and has weak stem and spread on a long distance. They can be flowering or non- flowering, e.g. pumpkin, bottle gourd etc.
• Climber plants have very soft and weak stem. They grow only with the help of support.
• They can be both flowering and non-flowering, e.g. beans plant, jasmine plant etc.
• Mainly, a plant has roots, stem, leaves, flower, fruits and seeds, e.g. picture of parts of a plant.
• We get food from different parts of plants. We get cereals, pulses, wheat, fruits and vegetables, spices, sugar, tea, coffee, mustard oil, sunflower oil, coconut oil from plants.
• Different parts of a plant and their function are as follows.

Parts Functions
(1) Roots more...

The Animal Kingdom

THE ANIMAL KINGDOM     GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
• Animals move from one place to another in search of food, shelter and to themselves from the enemy.
• Plants and animals both are living organisms. Animals depends upon plants for food animals are known as consumers and plants are called producer in a food chain.
• Animals that can be tamed and kept at homes and farms are called domestic anima cow, goats, buffalo’s horse etc.
• Uses: donkey is used for load carrying, oxen for cultivation, cow gives us milk etc.
• The skin of some animals like snakes, crocodiles, camels etc. are used as leather.
• Some animals like cats, dogs, rabbits and birds are kept at home are known animals.
• Animals which live in forests are called wild animals. These animals are danger lion, tiger, wolf, fox, deer, giraffe, monkey etc.
• Herbivores animals eat only plants, fruits and vegetables, e.g. cow, deer, goat, etc.
• Carnivore’s animals eat only flesh of other animals e.g. Lion, tiger, leopard, eagle, snake, fox etc.
• Omnivores animals eat both plants and animals e.g. crow, human beings, rat beer etc.
• Scavengers are wild animals which eat the remains of dead animals e.g. vulture, fox and jackal etc.
• Homes of some animals- cow-cowshed, dog-kennel, horse-stable, lion and tiger-den, rabbits, rats and snake-holes, monkey and birds-trees.

Human Body

HUMAN BODY       FUNDAMENTAL
• Cells are the smallest unit of life. Our body is made up of cells.
• Our body has a framework of bones called skeleton. It gives shape and support to the body.
• There are various joints such as elbow joint, wrist joint, knee joint, ankle joint etc.
• The sense organs - eyes, tongue, skin, ears and nose-help to protect the body.
 Our eyes help us to see thing Our tongue helps us to taste Our ears help us to hear sounds Our skin helps us to feel Our nose us to smell

• Several organs perform different functions. Such as brain, lungs, heart, Kidney etc.
• Brain is the central organ of the nervous system. Brain more...

Our Universe

OUR UNIVERSE     FUNDAMENTAL
• The sun and the planets form the solar system. The sun is exactly at the center of our solar system and planets revolve all around the sun. The eight planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
• All the planets move around the Sun in fixed paths called orbits.
• Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are called inner planets because they are close to the Sun. They are made of hard rock.
• Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are called outer planets as they are far away from the Sun. They are also known as gas giants.
• The movement of the earth about its axis is called rotation. It takes 24 hrs. to rotate once.
• The movement of the earth around the Sun in an orbit is called revolution. It takes about 365 days for the earth to complete one revolution around the Sun.
• Revolution of the earth causes changes in seasons.
• Moon is the earth’s natural satellite.
• Changes in the shape of the moon are called phases of the moon such as new moon, crescent moon, half moon, gibbous moon.
• The moon is made up of rocks and dust. There is no air on the moon. So, there is no life on the moon.
• Neil Armstrong was the first man to land on the moon in 1969.
• Shadow is formed when light is not able to pass through an opaque object. The Sun casts long shadows in the morning and evening, as the Sun is at the lowest in the sky. The Sun casts the shortest shadow at midday, when the Sun is highest in the sky.

Our Environment

OUR ENVIRONMENT     FUNDAMENTAL
• Environment includes everything, i.e. vegetation, water, microorganisms, soil, rocks, atmosphere, etc.
• Our environment consists of both living and non-living things.eg. Atmosphere, sea, river, lakes, soil etc.
• Atmosphere means the sphere of air surrounding the earth. Mainly, there are four sub- systems called spheres, they are land (lithosphere), water (hydrosphere), living things (biosphere) and air (atmosphere).
• The atmosphere consists of four unique layers:
The troposphere       (0-8 miles) The stratosphere       (8-30 miles) The mesosphere       (30-50 miles)                                   The thermosphere    (50-120 miles)
• Atmosphere protects the life on the earth. Atmosphere has gases like nitrogen hydrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, helium and some more gases. It has 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 1% other gases.
• Oxygen is the most important gas of atmosphere, as most of the living organisms inhale it.
• Seas are the natural source of water.
• Rivers are natural source of water. It is usually freshwater, flowing towards an etc. e.g. Ganges, Yamuna.
• Lakes are both natural and man-made. A lake is a still water body surrounded by from all sides. Lakes are a body of fresh or salt water of considerable size surrounded by land. E.g. Dal Lake, Wular Lake Etc.
• Soil is a natural resource made up of tiny particles of broken rock, mineral, clay and humus. Soil is an important ingredient for the survival of living organisms on earth.
• There are mainly three types of soil-sandy soil, clayey soil and loamy soil.
• Hard surface of the earth consists of rocks. The earth is made up of hard matter called rocks. They are many shapes, Sizes and colour.
• Various kinds of rocks are
(i) Granite $\to$It is used for making buildings and statutes (ii) Marble $\to$ It is used for making building and statutes (iii) Sandstone$\to$ These rocks are soft in nature.                         Coal, slate, graphite, chalk is also soft.

Housing and their Surroundings

HOUSING AND THEIR SURROUNDINGS     FUNDAMENTAL
• A house is a place where we live with our family. It protects us from the Sun, wind, rain, animals etc.
• There are many kinds of houses e.g. permanent or pucca house, kuccha houses, huts, tents, caravan, house boat and igloos etc.
• Permanent houses are built of bricks and cement. They last for a long time.
• Kutcha houses are small and are made of mud and straw.

• Huts are temporary houses made of wood, bamboo leaves etc.
• Caravans are houses on wheels. These are also called mobile homes.
• Igloos are houses made by Eskimos with solid ice cubes in semicircular shape. The) have semi- circular roofs.
• People living in plains usually make houses with flat roofs. People living in mountains build houses of wood with sloping roofs.
• Sloping roofs are built in the areas where it rains a lot
• A good house should be clean, airy and have proper ventilators - sunlight and ‘fresh ail keeps the room dry and free from germs.
• Proper drainage system should be there to take away dirty waters, kitchens should have chimneys. Dustbins should be kept for garbage (waste).
• We should keep the surroundings clean. Water should not stagnate here and there as mosquitoes may breed.

Our Food and Clothes

OUR FOOD AND CLOTHES     FUNDAMENTAL
• The basic requirements of human beings are food and clothes. Food gives energy to do work. Clothes protect us from heat, dust and cold.
• We eat different foods such as fruits, vegetables, meat, pulses, egg, meat, cereals etc.
• We obtain the food item from two sources------ plants and animals. Both plants are animals are useful to us as they provide many food items. Some of the food items are listed below:

From Plants and Vegetables From Animals
Fruits Meat
Cereals Egg
Pulses Honey
Oils
Spices more...

Air, Water and Weather

AIR, WATER AND WEATHER   FUNDAMENTAL
• Air is present in the environment. Air is a mixture of different gases like nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide etc.
• Air contains 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and remaining 1% other gases.
• Living things need air to breathe. We must breathe in fresh and clean air.
• Wind is the movement of air, there are mainly two types of wind - global wind and local wind.
• Global winds are the dominant prevailing wind patterns that blow in a fairly, constant, steady direction across our earth.
• Local winds are small scale wind of local origin caused by temperature difference. They can move up, down and horizontal. E.g. wind of mountain areas.
• Breeze $\to$ A gentle wind is called breeze. Motion of air from sea to land is called sea breeze and land to sea is called land breeze.
• Storm $\to$ A storm is very bad weather, with heavy rain, strong winds. It includes thunder and lightning. So, storm is a strong wind, it can be dust storm, snow storm, rainstorm etc. e.g. of circular storm is cyclone. It causes damages to trees, houses and other things.
• A very strong wind is called gale.
• All living things need water to live. Life is impossible without water.
• Water, ice and water vapors are three states of water. All the three forms are inter convertible.
• Freezing point of water is $0{}^\circ C$and boiling point of water is$100{}^\circ C$.
• We get water from rain. These are the sources of surface water. The main sources of' water are rivers, lakes, ponds and reservoirs.
• Some rainwater seeps into the ground called ground water.
• Water cycle $\to$ As the Sun heats up the water in river, lakes, ponds and sea, the water vapor rises. Then, it cools and forms small water droplets. Cloud are formed which give rain, which goes back to seas and rivers. This is called water cycle.
• Evaporation $\to$ the change of state from a liquid to a gas is called evaporation.
• Rate of evaporation depends upon temperature, wind, area of exposed surface and humidity.
• Condensation $\to$ the change of state of steam from a gas to a liquid is called condensation.
• Water is very precious. So we should conserve it. Reducing, revising and recycling are the ways of conserving water.
• There are mainly four seasons in a year - summer, winter, autumn and spring.
• Weather of a place is the combined effect of Sun, air, water and clouds.

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