Multiplication
Synopsis
Multiplication:
 Multiplication is the same as repeated addition, x is the symbol for multiplication.
 The number to be multiplied is called the MULTIPLICAND.
 The number by which we multiply is called the MULTIPLIER.
 The answer is called the PRODUCT.
e.g., 24 \[\times \] 3 = 72
\[\downarrow \] \[\downarrow \] \[\downarrow \]
Multiplicand Multiplier Product

Note: The product of a number and zero is
zero.
The product of a number and 1 is the
number itself.
Even if the order of the number to
be multiplied is changed, the
product remains the same.

Multiplication of a 1  digit number by another 1  digit number:
e.g., 3 \[\times \] 9 = 27
Multiply the numbers and write the product.
Multiplication of a 2  digit number by 1  digit number:
e.g., 1: Multiply 98 by 3.
First multiply ones and then multiply tens. Regroup the product if needed.
Step 1: Multiply 8 ones by 3. ®
8 ones \[\times \] 3 = 24 ones = 2 tens + 4 ones
Write 4 in the ones place,
Carry 2 tens to the tens place.
Step2: Multiply 9 tens by 3.
9 tens \[\times \] 3 = 27 tens
= 20 tens + 7 tens
= 2 hundreds + 7 tens
Add the carried 2 tens to 7 tens. So, 7 tens + 2 tens = 9 tens.
Write 9 in the tens place. Write 2 in hundreds place.
Multiplication of a 2  digit number by another 2digit number:
e.g., Multiply 36 by 25.
Step  1: First multiply ones.
Write 0 in the ones place and carry 3 tens to the tens place.
Step  2: Multiply the digit in tens place of the multiplicand by the ones digit of the multiplier. 3 \[\times \] 5 = 15.
Now add the 3 carried from the product of ones to 15, which gives 15 + 3 = 18. Write 18 beside 0 in the product.
Step  3: Now place a 0 below 0 in the product 180.
Multiply the digit 6 in ones place of the multiplicand by the digit 2 in tens place of multiplier. 6 \[\times \] 2 = 12
Write 2 below 8 in the
more...