# Current Affairs 2nd Class

#### Living and Non-Living Things

Living and Non-Living Things   Living Things There are certain characteristics of living things, which are as follows:   Characteristics of Living Things Living things can feel Living things on our earth can feel. If you throw a stone at a cat, it runs away. Because it feels pain when gets hurt by a stone. The animals not only feel pain but also the other sensations like hot and cold. For example, when we touch a hot plate, we pull off our hand. Because we feel hot Similarly if we touch ice, we feel cold. In other words, we can distinguish the things as hot or cold by just touching them.                                                A hot cup of tea                                   A cold ice cream   Living things can move Living things on earth, except plants, can move. But the way in which these animals move from one place to another is totally different from each other. For example, dog use their four legs for moving from one place to another.              Dog   Dog, cat, elephant, lion and most of the land animals use their four legs (front two legs are called forelimbs and other two legs are called hind limbs) for moving from one place to another.                                                      Fox                                                                   Deer   Fishes and other aquatic animals move from one place to another by swimming. The special structured body of different aquatic animals help them to move in water.                                   Dolphin                                                             Shark                         Living things can breathe All living beings can breathe. But again, the way to breathe in air is different in different living beings. For example, human beings breathe through nose, fishes breathe through their gills, cockroaches have spiracles and many other living beings have different organs to breathe. The pictures given herewith will give you an idea about the different ways of breathing of different living beings.                                                                Human Breathe through nose                                                  Breathe through moist skin                                                                                    Breathe through spiracle                                                                      Breathe through gills   All these livings beings, except plants, take in oxygen while breathing, and exhale out carbon dioxide.   Living things give birth to their own kind All living beings give birth to their own kind this process is called reproduction. In other words, life produces life. But the way of doing this is different and vary from one living being to another. Some animals lay more...

#### Geometrical Figures

Geometrical Figures   Line Let's see the lines given below:
• Example:
Give the name of all slant lines from the figure given below.             (a) AD and BC                             (B) AB and BC (c) AB and AD                            (D) All the above (e) None of these   Answer (a)
• Example:
Which one of the following is correct about the line? (a) A straight line is measured by ruler. (b) A straight line cannot be measured by ruler. (c) A straight line is measured in grams. (d) All the above (e) None of these   Answer (a). Note: We use ruler to measure a straight line.   Angle An angle is formed at the meeting point of two lines or an angle is formed when two lines meet. The point where two lines meet is called vertex. See the figures given below:
• Example:
Which one of the following is correct about the angle? (a) Both sides of an angle must be equal in length (b) Both sides of an angle may be unequal in length (c) Two lines cannot form an angle (d) Three lines are required for formation of an angle (e) None of these   Answer (b)
• Example:
Which one of the following is representing an angle?          Answer (c) Note: Both the sides of an angle may be unequal in length.   Square A square has four equal sides and four equal angles.             In this picture side AB = BD = CD = AC And  $\angle A=\angle B=\angle C=\angle D=90{}^\circ$
• Example:
If the sum of three angles of a square is$270{}^\circ$, then the measurement of its fourth angle will be? (a) $70{}^\circ$                                  (b) $80{}^\circ$ (c) $90{}^\circ$                                               (d) All the above (e) None of these   Answer (c) Explanation: Each angle of the square is$90{}^\circ$.   Quadrilateral Properties A quadrilateral has:
• 4 sides (edges)
• 4 vertices (corner)
• The following are the quadrilaterals:
• Example:
A plane figure has four sides and four vertices. The name of the plane figure is: (a) Quadrilateral                                     (b) Triangle (c) Pentagon                               (d) All the above (e) None of these   Answer (a)   Rectangle Properties In a rectangle:
• Opposite sides are equal.
• Opposite sides are parallel.
• All angles are equal.
• See the figure given below: Here, AB = CD And AC = BD $\angle A=\angle more... #### Knowing Our Body Knowing Our Body Our Body Our body is like a living machine. It consists of organs which can be divided into two (i) External organ (ii) Internal organ External Organs The parts of our body that we can see are called external organs. Some of our external organs are head, arms, legs, ears, and nose. Internal Organs The parts that are inside our body that we cannot see are called internal organs. Examples of internal organs are brain, heart, lungs, stomach, etc. some important internal organs are as follows: Heart: Heart beats. It pumps blood to all parts of the body. Stethoscope is used by doctors to listen to the heart beat. Heart Brain: It helps us to think and work. Brain Lungs: We have two lungs. They help us to breathe. Lungs Stomach: It looks like a bag. The food we eat goes to stomach. Stomach Our Sense Organs Sense organs are those organs through which we get the feeling of our surroundings. We have five sense organs which are as follows: Eyes: Eyes help us to see. Nose: Nose helps us to smell. Ears: Ears help us to hear. Tongue: Tongue helps us to taste. Skin: Skin helps us to sense hot and cold. It is the largest organ of our body. The Skeleton (i) The framework of bones which gives shape and support to our body is called the skeleton. (ii) There are 206 bones in a human body. (iii) Our bones are covered with muscles. (iv) The place where two or more bones are joined together is called a joint. #### Clothes and Shelter Clothes and Shelter We wear clothes to protect ourselves from heat, cold and rain. We wear different types of clothes in different seasons. We wear cotton clothes in summer. We wear woolen clothes in winter. We wear raincoat during rainy season. We wear uniform in school. We wear formal dress when we go to a party or attend any function. Sources of Clothes We obtain clothes from both plants and animals. Clothes obtained from animals We get the following types of clothes from animals: (i) Silk (ii) Wool Silk We get silk from silkworm. Silkworm is a type of insect. They feed on mulberry leaves. Wool Sheep gives us wool. The thick hair that grows on the body of a sheep is collected, then cleaned and made into woolen threads. Wool is used to knit sweaters, caps, shawls, etc. It keeps us warm during winter. Clothes obtained from plants We get the following types of clothes from plants. (i) Cotton (ii) Jute Cotton Cotton clothes are made from cotton plants. Cotton grows in pods. The pods are picked and thread is made from the cotton. Making thread from cotton is known as spinning. Weaving is the process of making clothes from thread. Jute Jute is one of the cheapest natural fibre, which is used for making things for our regular use. For example, rope, bag, mat, etc. are made up of jute fibres. Jute fibres are pale yellow in colour and are quite strong. They have a silky lustre and are also used in making clothes. All living things need a house to live in. A house protects us from the heat, cold, rain and wind. It also protects us from thieves. Some people live at one place for a very short time. They keep moving to different places. They build houses that can be moved from one place to another. Such houses are called temporary houses. Some houses cannot be moved from one place to another. These are called permanent houses. Eskimos live in very cold places. They make houses of ice. These house are called igloos. Houses Have Different Roofs People living in mountains make houses with sloping roofs. People living in areas where it rains a lot make houses on stilts with sloping roofs. People living in plains usually make houses with flat roofs. #### Water Air and Weather Water, Air and Weather Air and water are all around us. We cannot see air but can feel it when it is moving. All living beings need air and water to live and grow. Water animal Water plant Water Water is found in rivers, lakes, oceans, seas, etc. These are called water bodies. More than two third of the earth is covered with water. Most of the water on the earth is salt water. We need fresh water to drink, which is only a very little portion of all the available water on earth. A major portion of fresh water available in the form of glacier ice, at the north and south poles. It is far away from us. Therefore, we cannot use it. Uses of water • Drinking • Washing • Bathing • Transportation • Heating and cooling • In industry and for many other purposes. Air Air is all around us. We cannot see it. But we can feel it. Moving air is called wind. A gentle wind is called breeze. When wind blows very fast, it is called storm. Wind is blowing Air is very necessary for all of us to live. We take in air when we breathe. But the air we breathe must be clean and fresh. Unclean air makes us sick. We get fresh air from trees and plants. Weather Our earth is surrounded by air. Sometimes this air becomes cold, sometimes hot. Sometimes we have rain, sometimes it is neither too hot nor too cold. This condition of a place, at any given time, is called weather. Flowers Snow Rain Sunny day Weather is not same all through the year. It keeps changing from time to time. #### Heavenly Bodies Heavenly Bodies All heavenly bodies like sun, moon, earth comes in our universe. Our Solar System Our solar system consists of sun, eight planets and their satellites. Sun is at the centre of the solar system and all the eight planets revolve around the sun. • Sun is the biggest and hottest body in our solar system. It is a hot ball of gases. It has its own light. • Mercury - It is the smallest planet which is nearest to the sun. • Venus - is also known as morning and evening star. It is on the second position from the sun. • Earth - We live on this planet and it is on the third position from the sun. It is also known as the blue planet. • Mars - It is on the fourth position from the sun. It is also known as the red planet. • Jupiter - It is the biggest planet of the solar system and is on the fifth position from the sun. • Saturn - This planet is on the sixth position from the sun. • Uranus - is on the seventh position from the sun. It is the second coldest planet the solar system. • Neptune - is on the eighth position from the sun and is the coldest planet of the solar system. Inner Planets The planets which revolve closer to the sun are inner planets. These are: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars- Outer Planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are outer planets of the solar system. The Moon Our earth has one moon which revolves around the earth. The Moon of earth is also called its natural satellite. The moon does not have its own light. Rotation of Earth Movement of earth on its own axis is called rotation of the earth. Earth takes 24 hours to complete one rotation. Revolution of Earth Movement of earth around the sun is called revolution of the earth. Earth takes 365 1/4 days to complete one revolution around the sun. #### Means of Transport Means of Transport There are different means of transport. These are air, water and land transport which includes rail, road and off-road transport. In general, transportation is used for the movement of people, animals, and other things. Air Transport Air transport is the fastest means of transport. Land Transport Land transport covers all land-based transportation system that provide for the movement of people, goods and services. Rail Rail transport is the cheapest and convenience means of transport for passengers and goods. Road Transport It includes motorcars, motorcycles, buses, trucks, bicycles and pedestrians. Water Transport Water transport is the process of transport that a watercraft, such as a barge, boat, ship or sailboat, makes over a body of water, such as a sea, ocean. #### Food Food All living beings need food. Food gives energy to do various works. We take different food items in our meal. For example, vegetables, fruits, meat, pulses, egg, milk, cereals etc. Sources of Food Some animals are useful to us as they provide many of our food items. A table given below shows some food items and their source. (i) Plants (ii) Animals  Food item obtained from plants Food item obtained from animals Vegetables Milk Fruits Meat Cereals Egg Pulses Honey Oils Spices Importance of Food Food is needed by all living organisms for four main purposes: (i) It helps human beings, animals as well as plants to grow. (ii) It provides energy. We need energy for our all body movements such as running, walking and speaking, etc. (iii) It is required by living organisms for replacement and repair of damaged parts. (iv) It protects us from diseases and infections. Classification of Food Items According to Their Use • Food items which provide energy - sugar, glucose, sweets, rice, wheat, potatoes, • Food items that store energy in our body- oils, eggs, meat, milk, ghee, etc. • Food more... #### Plants and Animals Around Us Plants and Animals Around Us Plants Plants are the living things it can make their own food but cannot move. Plants grow in the soil. They need water, air and sunlight for preparing their food. Classification of Plants on the Basis of Their Length Plants are divided into the following categories: Trees Trees are big plants. They have hard and strong stems. For example, banyan and mango tree. Banyan tree Mango tree Shrubs Shrubs are small plants. They have many hard branches which grow close to the ground. For example, rose and hibiscus plant. Rose Plant Hibiscus Plant Herbs Herbs are very small plants. They have soft stems. For example, mint, basil. Mint Plant Basil Plant Climbers Climbers are the plants with weak stems. They need some support to stand straight. For example, grapevine and pea plant. Grapevine Plant Pea Plant Creepers Creepers are the plants which have week stem and grow along the ground. Pumpkin Watermelon Classification of Plants on the Basis of Their Location Water Plants There are some plants that grow in water only. Lotus Plant Water lily plant Desert plants There are some plants that grow in deserts. Cactus Plant Opuntia Plant Plants as Our Friends Plants give us food Most of our food is given by plants. We eat different parts of plants. Seeds: Rice, wheat, corn, etc. Roots: Carrot, turnip, radish and sweet potato. Stems: Sugarcane grows above the ground but potato and ginger grow under the ground. Leaves: Coriander, mint, lettuce, spinach and cabbage. Fruits: Mango, pear, banana, apple, etc. Flowers: Cauliflower, rose. Jasmine, broccoli, etc. Plants give us wood Plants give us fibre Fibre from the cotton plant is used to make cloth. Fibre from the jute plant is used to make cloth, sacks, ropes and mats. Plants give us medicine We make medicines like penicillin and quinine from plants. Tulsi leaves are used to treat common cold and cough. Sweet-smelling flowers like jasmine and rose are used to make perfumes. Plants give us other things Paper is made from bamboo. Gum is made from the more... #### Ones Tens Hundreds Thousands Ones, Tens, Hundreds and Thousands Identifying Ones and Tens In any number, first number from the right is called ones and second number from the right is called tens. The place value of digit at tens is obtained by multiplying the number by 10. • Example: What is the place value of 6 in the number 69? (a) 60 (b) 10 (c) 70 (d) All the above (e) None of these Answer (a) Explanation:\[69=6\times 10$. Therefore place value of 6 is 60.   Identifying Hundreds in a Number For the identification of hundreds in a number, the number should be of three or more digits. To obtain the place value of digit at hundreds place, the digit is multiplied by 100.
• Example:
Find the place value of digit 5 in 3576. (a) 400                                      (b) 500 (c) 5                                          (d) All the above (e) None of these   Answer (b) Explanation: $3576=3000+500+70+6$. Therefore, option (b) is correct.   Identifying Thousands in a Number To obtain the place value of digit at thousands, the digit is multiplied by 1000.
• Example:
What is the place value of digit 9 in 9873? (a) 9873                                                (b) 900 (c) 9000                                                (d) All the above (e) None of these   Answer (c) Explanation: Digit 9 is at thousands place. Therefore, option (c) is correct.   Place Value Chart Following are the place value of digits of 4276:
 Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones 4 2 7 6

• Example:
Identify the place of digit 3 in 5632. (a) Units                                    (b) Tens (c) Hundreds                              (d) All the above (e) None of these   Answer (b) Explanation: Digit 3 is second from right. Therefore, option (b) is correct.

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