Current Affairs 2nd Class

                                                     Plants and Animals Around Us   Plants Plants are the living things it can make their own food but cannot move. Plants grow in the soil. They need water, air and sunlight for preparing their food.   Classification of Plants on the Basis of Their Length Plants are divided into the following categories:   Trees Trees are big plants. They have hard and strong stems. For example, banyan and mango tree.                                              Banyan tree                                                          Mango tree   Shrubs Shrubs are small plants. They have many hard branches which grow close to the ground. For example, rose and hibiscus plant.                                                       Rose Plant                                 Hibiscus Plant   Herbs Herbs are very small plants. They have soft stems. For example, mint, basil.                                  Mint Plant                                      Basil Plant   Climbers Climbers are the plants with weak stems. They need some support to stand straight. For example, grapevine and pea plant.                                        Grapevine Plant                                                               Pea Plant Creepers Creepers are the plants which have week stem and grow along the ground.                                          Pumpkin                                                            Watermelon   Classification of Plants on the Basis of Their Location   Water Plants There are some plants that grow in water only.                                              Lotus Plant                                                        Water lily plant   Desert plants There are some plants that grow in deserts.                                                 Cactus Plant                                                      Opuntia Plant   Plants as Our Friends Plants give us food Most of our food is given by plants. We eat different parts of plants. Seeds: Rice, wheat, corn, etc. Roots: Carrot, turnip, radish and sweet potato. Stems: Sugarcane grows above the ground but potato and ginger grow under the ground. Leaves: Coriander, mint, lettuce, spinach and cabbage. Fruits: Mango, pear, banana, apple, etc. Flowers: Cauliflower, rose. Jasmine, broccoli, etc. Plants give us wood   Plants give us fibre Fibre from the cotton plant is used to make cloth. Fibre from the jute plant is used to make cloth, sacks, ropes and mats.   Plants give us medicine We make medicines like penicillin and quinine from plants. Tulsi leaves are used to treat common cold and cough. Sweet-smelling flowers like jasmine and rose are used to make perfumes. Plants give us other things Paper is made from bamboo. Gum is made from the more...

                                                                   Knowing Our Body   Our Body Our body is like a living machine. It consists of organs which can be divided into two (i)  External organ (ii) Internal organ   External Organs The parts of our body that we can see are called external organs. Some of our external organs are head, arms, legs, ears, and nose.   Internal Organs The parts that are inside our body that we cannot see are called internal organs. Examples of internal organs are brain, heart, lungs, stomach, etc. some important internal organs are as follows: Heart: Heart beats. It pumps blood to all parts of the body. Stethoscope is used by doctors to listen to the heart beat. Heart   Brain: It helps us to think and work. Brain   Lungs: We have two lungs. They help us to breathe. Lungs Stomach: It looks like a bag. The food we eat goes to stomach. Stomach   Our Sense Organs Sense organs are those organs through which we get the feeling of our surroundings. We have five sense organs which are as follows: Eyes: Eyes help us to see. Nose: Nose helps us to smell. Ears: Ears help us to hear. Tongue: Tongue helps us to taste. Skin: Skin helps us to sense hot and cold. It is the largest organ of our body.   The Skeleton (i) The framework of bones which gives shape and support to our body is called the skeleton. (ii) There are 206 bones in a human body. (iii) Our bones are covered with muscles. (iv) The place where two or more bones are joined together is called a joint.

                                                         Water, Air and Weather   Air and water are all around us. We cannot see air but can feel it when it is moving. All living beings need air and water to live and grow.                                                                        Water animal                                                     Water plant   Water Water is found in rivers, lakes, oceans, seas, etc. These are called water bodies. More than two third of the earth is covered with water. Most of the water on the earth is salt water. We need fresh water to drink, which is only a very little portion of all the available water on earth. A major portion of fresh water available in the form of glacier ice, at the north and south poles. It is far away from us. Therefore, we cannot use it.   Uses of water
  • Drinking
  • Washing
  • Bathing
  • Transportation
  • Heating and cooling
  • In industry and for many other purposes.
  Air Air is all around us. We cannot see it. But we can feel it. Moving air is called wind. A gentle wind is called breeze. When wind blows very fast, it is called storm.                                                                                                                         Wind is blowing Air is very necessary for all of us to live. We take in air when we breathe. But the air we breathe must be clean and fresh. Unclean air makes us sick. We get fresh air from trees and plants.   Weather Our earth is surrounded by air. Sometimes this air becomes cold, sometimes hot. Sometimes we have rain, sometimes it is neither too hot nor too cold. This condition of a place, at any given time, is called weather.                             Flowers                                                              Snow                                                                                Rain                                                                  Sunny day   Weather is not same all through the year. It keeps changing from time to time.    

                                                  Clothes and Shelter   We wear clothes to protect ourselves from heat, cold and rain. We wear different types of clothes in different seasons. We wear cotton clothes in summer. We wear woolen clothes in winter. We wear raincoat during rainy season. We wear uniform in school. We wear formal dress when we go to a party or attend any function.   Sources of Clothes We obtain clothes from both plants and animals. Clothes obtained from animals We get the following types of clothes from animals: (i) Silk (ii) Wool   Silk We get silk from silkworm. Silkworm is a type of insect. They feed on mulberry leaves.   Wool Sheep gives us wool. The thick hair that grows on the body of a sheep is collected, then cleaned and made into woolen threads. Wool is used to knit sweaters, caps, shawls, etc. It keeps us warm during winter.   Clothes obtained from plants We get the following types of clothes from plants. (i) Cotton (ii) Jute   Cotton Cotton clothes are made from cotton plants. Cotton grows in pods. The pods are picked and thread is made from the cotton. Making thread from cotton is known as spinning. Weaving is the process of making clothes from thread.   Jute       Jute is one of the cheapest natural fibre, which is used for making things for our regular use. For example, rope, bag, mat, etc. are made up of jute fibres. Jute fibres are pale yellow in colour and are quite strong. They have a silky lustre and are also used in making clothes.   All living things need a house to live in. A house protects us from the heat, cold, rain and wind. It also protects us from thieves. Some people live at one place for a very short time. They keep moving to different places. They build houses that can be moved from one place to another. Such houses are called temporary houses. Some houses cannot be moved from one place to another. These are called permanent houses. Eskimos live in very cold places. They make houses of ice. These house are called igloos. Houses Have Different Roofs People living in mountains make houses with sloping roofs. People living in areas where it rains a lot make houses on stilts with sloping roofs. People living in plains usually make houses with flat roofs.

                                                                         Food   All living beings need food. Food gives energy to do various works. We take different food items in our meal. For example, vegetables, fruits, meat, pulses, egg, milk, cereals etc.   Sources of Food Some animals are useful to us as they provide many of our food items. A table given below shows some food items and their source. (i) Plants (ii) Animals  
Food item obtained from plants     Food item obtained from animals  
Vegetables Milk
Fruits Meat
Cereals Egg
Pulses Honey
  Importance of Food Food is needed by all living organisms for four main purposes: (i) It helps human beings, animals as well as plants to grow. (ii) It provides energy. We need energy for our all body movements such as running, walking and speaking, etc. (iii) It is required by living organisms for replacement and repair of damaged parts. (iv) It protects us from diseases and infections.   Classification of Food Items According to Their Use
  • Food items which provide energy - sugar, glucose, sweets, rice, wheat, potatoes,
  • Food items that store energy in our body- oils, eggs, meat, milk, ghee, etc.
  • Food more...

                                                                     Heavenly Bodies   All heavenly bodies like sun, moon, earth comes in our universe.   Our Solar System Our solar system consists of sun, eight planets and their satellites. Sun is at the centre of the solar system and all the eight planets revolve around the sun.                                                            
  • Sun is the biggest and hottest body in our solar system. It is a hot ball of gases. It has its own light.
  • Mercury - It is the smallest planet which is nearest to the sun.
  • Venus - is also known as morning and evening star. It is on the second position from the sun.
  • Earth - We live on this planet and it is on the third position from the sun. It is also known as the blue planet.
  • Mars - It is on the fourth position from the sun. It is also known as the red planet.
  • Jupiter - It is the biggest planet of the solar system and is on the fifth position from the sun.
  • Saturn - This planet is on the sixth position from the sun.
  • Uranus - is on the seventh position from the sun. It is the second coldest planet the solar system.
  • Neptune - is on the eighth position from the sun and is the coldest planet of the solar system.
  Inner Planets The planets which revolve closer to the sun are inner planets. These are: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars-   Outer Planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are outer planets of the solar system.   The Moon Our earth has one moon which revolves around the earth. The Moon of earth is also called its natural satellite. The moon does not have its own light.   Rotation of Earth Movement of earth on its own axis is called rotation of the earth. Earth takes 24 hours to complete one rotation.   Revolution of Earth Movement of earth around the sun is called revolution of the earth. Earth takes 365 1/4 days to complete one revolution around the sun.

                                                       Ones, Tens, Hundreds and Thousands   Identifying Ones and Tens In any number, first number from the right is called ones and second number from the right is called tens. The place value of digit at tens is obtained by multiplying the number by 10.  
  • Example:
What is the place value of 6 in the number 69? (a) 60                                        (b) 10 (c) 70                                        (d) All the above (e) None of these   Answer (a) Explanation:\[69=6\times 10\]. Therefore place value of 6 is 60.   Identifying Hundreds in a Number For the identification of hundreds in a number, the number should be of three or more digits. To obtain the place value of digit at hundreds place, the digit is multiplied by 100.  
  • Example:
Find the place value of digit 5 in 3576. (a) 400                                      (b) 500 (c) 5                                          (d) All the above (e) None of these   Answer (b) Explanation: \[3576=3000+500+70+6\]. Therefore, option (b) is correct.   Identifying Thousands in a Number To obtain the place value of digit at thousands, the digit is multiplied by 1000.  
  • Example:
What is the place value of digit 9 in 9873? (a) 9873                                                (b) 900 (c) 9000                                                (d) All the above (e) None of these   Answer (c) Explanation: Digit 9 is at thousands place. Therefore, option (c) is correct.   Place Value Chart Following are the place value of digits of 4276:  
Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones
4 2 7 6
  • Example:
Identify the place of digit 3 in 5632. (a) Units                                    (b) Tens (c) Hundreds                              (d) All the above (e) None of these   Answer (b) Explanation: Digit 3 is second from right. Therefore, option (b) is correct.  

                                                                       Addition   Addition of two Numbers Addition is the method by which we can add two or more quantities. Therefore, in an addition two or more numbers are involved. Before knowing the rules of the addition, look at the following. Let us add: 9+5   Therefore, \[9+5=14\]   Rules for Addition The following are the rules for the addition of more than one digit numbers. Rule: 1 Start addition with the 1st digit from right, then with 2nd digit from the right and the process goes on. In another words, add ones 1st: then tens: then hundreds and so on. Look at the following addition: \[14+15=?\]           Rule: 2 If addition of one’s gives result in 2 digits, then add the left digit of the result with tens and the process goes on. Look at the following addition: \[25+26=?\]     Here, the left 1 of 11 is added to 4 as below:    
  • Example:
The following are the stock of the given articles in a general store:
Name of articles            Quantity (Pieces)
Soap 33
Tooth brush 11
Chocolates 13
How many articles are there in all? (a) 23                                        (b) 44 (c) 57                                        (d) All the above   Answer (b) Explanation: Therefore, option (b) is correct.   Addition of Three Numbers Let’s understand it through the following examples:  
  • Example:
{17} + {12} + {13} =? Trick:       Addition of Images Addition of images means grouping of more than one images into a single group.   In the                                                                 \[{{2}^{nd}}\] example we add group of [6] more...

                                                                       Subtraction   Subtraction of two Numbers When one quantity is taken away from another, the result is called subtraction or difference.  
  • Example:
\[87-69=18\]     Subtraction of Three Numbers Remember the steps for the subtraction: Step 1: Add the numbers having '-'(minus) sign and write the result with-sign.    Step II: Add the numbers having '+' (plus) sign and write the result with + sign. This method is applied when addition and subtraction are given. Simultaneously. Step III: Finally subtract the numbers.  
  • Example:
{45} – {33} – {2} = {10} Trick: Step 1: {33} + {2}     Step II: is not applicable here. Step III: {45} – {35}     Word Problems
  • Example:
There were 56 student in a school for class test. How many students have passed the test if 32 students were not appeared for the test? (a) 23                                         (b) 24 (c) 22                                        (d) 26 (e) None of these   Answer (b) Explanation: Therefore, option (b) is correct.  
  • Example:
  (a) 4                                          (b) 5 (c) 3                                          (d) 2 (e) None of these   Answer (a) Explanation: \[62=4\]. Therefore, option (a) is correct.    

                                                          Multiplication and Division   Multiplication by Repeated Addition Multiplication is the repeated addition. Multiplication of 5 and 4 is written as\[5\times 4=5+5+5+5+=20\]. Let's understand this through an example:   Multiplication of two Numbers The following are the steps for the multiplication of two numbers. For example multiply 12 and 2. Step I: Write down the numbers to be multiplied in columns as shown below: Step II: Multiply ones as below: \[2\,Ones\times 2=4\] It is written as: Step III: Multiply tens as shown below: \[1\,ten\times 2=2\,tens\] Write 2 under tens column. Therefore, the product of 12 and 2 = 24   Multiplication of Three Numbers
  • Example:
\[5\times 2\times 4=40\] Trick: \[{{1}^{st}}\]Multiply any two numbers and then multiply the result with the remaining number. Now first multiply \[\] and \[\] thus \[\times =\]and then \[\times =\]        
  • Example
A factory produces 15 items in a day. How many items it will produce in a week if Sunday is a holiday? Trick: Items produced in a day =15 Items produced in 6 days \[=5\times 6=90\]items.   Division Division means equal distribution. Facts about Division (i) Division is repeated subtraction. (ii) Division is inverse of multiplication. (iii) The symbol of division is horizontal line and two dots\[(\div )\]. (iv) The number which gets divided is called the DIVIDEND, denoted by capital 'D". (v) The number which divides the dividend is called the DIVISOR, denoted by’d’. (vi) The number which tells us how many times the division has been carried out is called the QUOTIENT, denoted by 'Q'. (vii) The number which is left after the division is called the REMAINDER, denoted by ‘R’. (viii) The division should be continued till the remainder is either ‘0' or less than the divisor (d). (ix) A number divided by 1 gives the number itself as the quotient. (x) A number divided by itself gives 1 as the quotient. (xi) Zero divided by any number gives 0 as the quotient.   Division by Grouping Equally
  • Example:
How much will you get if 12 pencils are equally divided between you and your friend? By grouping 12 pencils into two equal groups.              Therefore, you get 6 pencils and your friend gets 6 pencils. Division by Repeated Subtraction  
  • Example:
\[15\div 3=5\] We can divide 15 cakes equally among 3 children by repeated subtraction. Give 5 cakes to first child. 10 cakes are left. Give 5 cakes to second more...

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