Current Affairs 2nd Class

Living and Non-Living things   Synopsis         
  • Things around us are either living or non-living.
  • Those which have life are living things.
 e.g. plants, animals and human beings.
  • Things which do not have life in them are non-living things.
 e.g. wood, rock, water, paper, etc.        Differences between living things and non-living things. (i) Living things can breathe but non-living things do not breathe. (ii)   Living things grow but non-living things do not grow. Animals grow from Young ones to adults and plants from seeds to trees.   (iii)  Living things need food but non-living things do not need food. (iv) Living things can move but non-living things do not move on their own. Animals move from one place to another and plants show movements. (v) Living things can reproduce their own kind but non-living things do not reproduce. (vi) Living things can feel but non-living things cannot feel. (vii) Living things can grow old and die.      Living Things:    

Plant Life   Synopsis  
  • Plants grow in all shapes and sizes. Some grow on the ground and others in water.
  • Big and tall plants are called trees. Trees have strong woody trunks with branches and live for many years.
Example: Mango, Neem, Banyan, etc.        
  •  Small plants or bushes with woody stems are called shrubs.
Example: Hibiscus, Rose, Cotton, etc.        
  • Small plants with soft stems are called herbs. Herbs live for one season and then die.
Example: Mint, Chrysanthemum, Coriander, etc.        
  •    Plants with weak stems that need support of other plants, sticks or walls, etc., are called climbers.                                            
Example: Grapevine, Money plant. Bean, etc.                                
  •   Plants with weak stems that grow along the ground are called creepers.
Example: Pumpkin, Bottle gourd, etc.     Image result for pumpkin plant      
  • Some plants live in water. They are called water plants or aquatic plants.
Example' Lotus, water lily, etc.        
  • Some plants like cactus, opuntia are desert plants. They have thorns and thick leaves.       
  • We get food from different parts of plants. We get cereals, pulses, coffee, tea, sugar, oil, spices, fibre, wood, paper, gum, rubber etc., from plants.

Animal Life   Synopsis  
  •  Animals that can be tamed and kept at homes and farms are called domestic animals.
  •  We get milk from cows, goats, and buffaloes and eggs from hens, ducks and geese. Animals like fish, goat, sheep and hen gives us meat. We get silk from silkworms and wool from sheep.
  • The skin of some animals like snakes, crocodiles, buffaloes and camels are used as leather.
  •   Some animals like oxen, horses, donkeys, elephants and camels carry loads for us.
  • The dung of horses, goats, cows and buffaloes is put into pits and covered. This turns into manure. Manure helps plants to grow better.
  • Some animals like cats, dogs, rabbits and birds are kept at home. They are known as pet animals.
  •  Animals that live in jungles are called wild animals. Example: lion, tiger, wolf, fox, deer, giraffe, monkey, etc.
  •  Wild animals eat different kinds of food. Some animals like elephant, zebra, deer and giraffe eat grass and other plants.
  • Some animals hunt for their prey. Animals like lion, tiger and birds like hawk kill other animals and eat their flesh.
  • Some animals like bear, rat and crow eat both plants and flesh of other animals.    
  • Some wild animals like vulture/fox and jackal eat the remains of dead animals. They are called scavengers.
  • Wild animals live in different kinds of homes. Lions and tigers live in caves called dens. Rabbits, rats and snakes live in holes in the ground. Monkeys, birds and squirrels live on trees.
  • Some wild animals like deer and zebra move about in the jungle. They do not make their homes.
Animals that can be kept at farms or at home are called domestic animals.
  • The homes of some animals that we make to keep them are

Human Body   Synopsis    
  • Our body has many parts like bones, joints, muscles and organs.
  • Our body has a framework of bones called skeleton. Skeleton gives shape and support to the body.  
Related image Related image                         Elbow Joint     Wrist joint         Knee joint          Related image                        Ankle Joint                  Muscle & Joint       Eyes/ears, nose, tongue and skin help us to know the world around us.                        Our tongue helps us to       Our eyes help us to         Taste food.                          See things.                 Our ears help us to     Our skin helps us to feel. hear sounds.               Our nose helps us to smell.      
  • To keep fit we must keep our body clean.
                                    We must have breakfast every day.                    We must brush our teeth every morning                                                          We must more...

Air, Water and Weather   Synopsis  
  •  Air is present all around us.
  •  Living things need air to breathe.
  •  We must breathe in fresh and clean air.
  •  Moving air is called wind.  A gentle wind is called a breeze.
  • When the wind is strong and blows very fast, it is called a storm.  A very strong wind is called a gale.  
  •  A weather cock or windvane is used to know the direction of the wind.
  • Wind makes windmills work. Windmills are used to generate energy. This wind energy is used to grind grains, pump water and make electricity.
  • All living things need water to live.
  • We get water from rain. Rainwater fills ponds, lakes, streams and rivers. These are the sources of surface water.
  • Some rainwater seeps into the ground. This is called ground water.
  • Water can be found in three forms- solid ice, liquid form of water and gaseous form of water vapour.
  • The three forms of water can be changed into one another.
  • The sun heats up the water in rivers, lakes, ponds and sea.
  • Water vapour rises in the air. It cools and forms small water droplets. These water droplets form clouds. Clouds give rain which goes back to seas and rivers. This is called water cycle.

Rock and Minerals   Synopsis  
  • The earth is made up of hard matter called rocks. Rocks are of many shapes, sizes and colours. Pebbles, stones, sand and soils are formed from rocks. 
  • Granite is a hard and rough rock, reddish or greyish in colour. It is used for making statues and buildings.
  •  Marble is a hard and beautiful rock. It can be pink, blue, black, grey or white in colour. Pure marble is white. It is used for making statues and buildings.
  •  Sandstone is not as hard as granite or marble. It is yellow or red in colour and is used for making buildings.
          Some rocks are soft. e.g. coal, chalk, graphite and slate.                                                                                             Sandstone      
  • Coal is a rock used for burning. Slate is blackish in colour and is used for making blackboards and slates.
    Coal                  Graphite is a soft black rock. The lead of a pencil is made of graphite.            
  • Diamond is the hardest rock on earth. It is transparent with no colour. It can be used for cutting glass. It is used for making jewellery.       

Our Universe      Synopsis
  • The sun, the moon and the stars are heavenly bodies. · The sun is a hot ball of fire made up of hot gases.
  Image result for SUN  
  • The sun is also a star that we can see during the day. It appears bigger in size be-cause it is nearer to the earth.
  • The sun is the source of light and energy for all living organisms.
  • Plants prepare food in the presence of sunlight.
  • The moon is the satellite of the earth. It does not have any light of its own. Sunlight falls on the moon. This light is reflected back to the earth as moonlight.
    Image result for MOON png  
  • The moon is made up of rocks and dust. There is no air on the moon. That is why there is no life on the moon.
  •  Neil Armstrong was the first man to land on the moon in 1969.
  • A shadow is formed when something comes in the way of light.  
  • A shadow is formed on the opposite side of light,
  • Shadows change as the sun moves.
  • Shadows at different times of the day differ in their lengths.
  • Shadows formed by the sun are longer in the mornings and evenings.
  • At noon, shadows are the shortest as the sun is just above us.

Safety and First Aid   Synopsis  
  • Safety means staying away from harm.
  • There are certain safety rules which help us and others.
  • Safety rules while at home  
        Do not play with matchsticks, switches, plugs, gas cylinders, fire, knives, blades scissors etc.       Keep your things in their proper places after using them. Do not play with sharp objects like blades, knives and scissors.              Inform your parents or an adult if you get hurt.
  • Safety rules while at school
         Do not push each other while climbing stairs. You or someone else might fall and get hurt.          Do not climb on desks and chairs. Sit quietly in the classroom.          Do not play games that may hurt you. Play games that are safe.          Inform your teacher or an adult if you get hurt.
  • Safety rules on the road
         Do not run or play on the road.          Be careful while crossing the road. You should use a zebra crossing          Zebra crossings are lines made on the road used for crossing the road safely.                     Always walk on the footpath on the left side of the road.            Obey the traffic rules'Stop' when the light is red and 'go' when it is green   
  • Do not get in or out of a moving bus.
  • Do not lean out of the window of a bus.
  • Safety rules while swimming
         Do not swim alone in the swimming pool. Go with an adult.          Use swimming tubes, floaters or armbands while swimming.          Do not go to the deep side of the pool.           Do not push or pull each other when you are in the water.
  •  First aid is the immediate medical help given to an injured or a sick person before the doctor arrives.
  • The main aim of giving the first aid is to Save lives and
          Keep the victim comfortable till medical help arrives.
  • Common emergencies that need first aid are bleeding wounds, poisoning, insect bites, burns, etc.

Housing and Clothing   Synopsis   Types of Houses    
  • A house is a place where we live.
  • A house protects us from the hot sun, cold wind, rain, wild animals and thieves.
  • There are many kinds of houses, e.g., permanent or pucca houses, kutcha houses, huts, tents, caravans, house boat and igloos.
  • Permanent houses are built of bricks and cement. They last for a long time.
  • Kutcha houses are small and are made of mud and straw
  • Huts are small, temporary houses made of wood and bamboo.
  •  Tents are temporary houses, easily movable and are made of canvas cloth.   
  • Caravans are houses on wheels. These are mobile houses.
  • A house boat is a house floating on a lake.
  • Igloos are houses made by Eskimos with solid ice cubes in semi circular shape.
  • People use different kinds of materials to build their houses. These materials are usually easily available in the places they live.
  • People use bricks, cement, stones, wood, mud, straw, etc. to build their houses.
  • People living in areas where it rains a lot build houses on stilts with sloping roofs.
  • People living in mountains build houses of wood with sloping roofs.
  • People living in plains usually make houses with flat roofs.
  • Snow houses or igloos have semi-circular roofs.   
    Clothes we wear
  • Long long ago, people wore animal skins for clothes. Today we wear clothes made of cotton, silk, wool, nylon, etc.
  •  We need clothes to cover our bodies. Clothes protect us from heat, cold, wind and rain. We wear clothes according to the changing weather.
  •  We wear light cotton clothes when it is hot.
  • We wear warm woollen clothes when it is cold.
  •  During rains, we need to wear a raincoat or carry an umbrella.
  • Cotton clothes are made of cotton. We get cotton from the cotton plant.
  •  Woollen clothes are made of wool. We get wool from the fleece of sheep.
  • Silk clothes are made of silk. We get silk from the cocoons of silkworms.    

                                                                      Living and Non-Living Things   Living Things There are certain characteristics of living things, which are as follows:   Characteristics of Living Things Living things can feel Living things on our earth can feel. If you throw a stone at a cat, it runs away. Because it feels pain when gets hurt by a stone. The animals not only feel pain but also the other sensations like hot and cold. For example, when we touch a hot plate, we pull off our hand. Because we feel hot Similarly if we touch ice, we feel cold. In other words, we can distinguish the things as hot or cold by just touching them.                                                A hot cup of tea                                   A cold ice cream   Living things can move Living things on earth, except plants, can move. But the way in which these animals move from one place to another is totally different from each other. For example, dog use their four legs for moving from one place to another.              Dog   Dog, cat, elephant, lion and most of the land animals use their four legs (front two legs are called forelimbs and other two legs are called hind limbs) for moving from one place to another.                                                      Fox                                                                   Deer   Fishes and other aquatic animals move from one place to another by swimming. The special structured body of different aquatic animals help them to move in water.                     Image result for SHARK 3D HD              Dolphin                                                             Shark                         Living things can breathe All living beings can breathe. But again, the way to breathe in air is different in different living beings. For example, human beings breathe through nose, fishes breathe through their gills, cockroaches have spiracles and many other living beings have different organs to breathe. The pictures given herewith will give you an idea about the different ways of breathing of different living beings.                                                                Human Breathe through nose                                                  Breathe through moist skin                                                                                    Breathe through spiracle                                                                      Breathe through gills   All these livings beings, except plants, take in oxygen while breathing, and exhale out carbon dioxide.   Living things give birth to their own kind All living beings give birth to their own kind this process is called reproduction. In other words, life produces life. But the way of doing this is different and vary from one living being to another. Some animals lay more...

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