# Current Affairs 2nd Class

#### Estimation

OBJECTIVES     ·         Students will involve in estimating real-life quantities such as distance, areas and volumes. ·         Estimation allows students to make judgements about how much time, money, food ? they will need. ·         In estimation, students use their mathematical reasoning which ultimately saves time and money.     INTRODUCTION Estimation is a rough calculation of the value, number, quantity, or extent of something.     Examples     1.              How many sweets are in the box? Estimate. (a) 6                                          (b) 7            (c) 8                                          (d) 9   Ans.     (b) There are 7 sweets in the box         2.            Reha went to the zoo and saw some Giraffes and Alligators. She made a picture graph of the animals at the zoo: Which animal did she see fewer of? (a) Alligators                               (b) Giraffes      (c) Both                                     (d) None of them   Ans.     (b) Count the number of each animal in the graph. She saw 7 Alligators and 3 Giraffes. So, she saw fewer Giraffes.         3.            Which bus is the shortest among the following?   (a) P                                         (b) Q           (c) R                                          (d) S   Ans.     (d) Bus S is shortest among them.         4.            Which tower is taller than B? (a) A                                         (b) B            (c) C                                         (d) D   Ans.     (d) Tower D is taller than B.         5.            Estimate the weight of a rubber? (a) 2 g                                       (b) 2 kg         (c) 200 g                                    (d) 5 kg     Ans.     (a) The estimated weight of a rubber is 2g.

#### Problem Solving

OBJECTIVES     ·         Students will identify different problem solving styles and methods. ·         They will apply methods to specific problems. ·         A problem-solving approach can be used to encourage students to make generalization about rules and concepts. ·         It develops students' confidence in their own ability to think mathematically.       INTRODUCTION Problem solving is a process of working through details of a problem to reach a solution.             ·         Students will learn the use of one piece of information in the problem. ·         They will organise the given information.         Examples     1.            Rihana plucks 5 flowers in her garden. The 1st flower is pink. The 2nd flower is white. The 3rd flower is pink. If this pattern continues, what colour is the 5th flower? (a) White                                   (b) Pink         (c) Red                                      (d) Yellow   Ans.     (b) The pattern is as follows:
 1st flower 2nd flower 3rd flower 4th flower 5th flower Pink White Pink White Pink
So, the colour of the 5th flower is Pink.         2.            There are 2 bikes and 2 cars in a parking lot. How many wheels do they more...

#### Patterns

Type I: How to find the missing term or next term in (number, letter or figure) series to continue the given series? ·         Identify the order of series (descending or ascending) order. ·         Observe the pattern using operations: Addition, Subtraction, Skip counting and Reverse counting. ·         Identify the order of alphabetical series either from A to Z or Z to A. ·         Numbering of alphabets either starting from A or starting from Z. ·         Skipping letters.   Type II: How to find the missing number in a number pattern? ·         To find the missing term in the number pattern, identify the rule followed in given terms of the pattern using mathematical operations, tables.   Type III: How to find the missing part in the figure pattern? ·         Complete the figure pattern by drawing its incomplete part in the pattern.     EXAMPLE   1.       Look closely at the figures in the boxes below. Find the rule followed in the pattern and the missing figure.                                                  (a)                   (b)                   (c)                   (d)              Explanation (b): Each figure in row repeats itself after three figures. So, the missing figure is Figure (b).      2.       Find the rule followed in the figure pattern and the missing figure.                                                           (a)                   (b)                   (c)

#### Measuring Units

Lengths Weights Money Time
How to compare the lengths of given objects? How to compare the weights of given object? 1 Rupee = 100 Paise Number of days in a week  = 7
1 paisa = 1/100 Rupee
? If objects are straight then measure them by ruler of tape. ? If objects are curved, then the object having the maximum curves is the longest and object having the minimum curves is the shortest. Use weighing scale to identify the weight of objects and categorise them from the heaviest or the heaviest to the lightest. Number of months in a year = 12
1 hour = 60 minutes
1 minute = 1 / 60 more...

#### Geometrical Shapes

Shapes and Their Names       more...

#### Odd One Out

How to find the odd term amongst the given terms?
•        Put the things or terms in a category.
•          Category can be divided on the bassis of shapes, size, Properties of geometrical figures, numbers (quantity), etc.
One to one correspondence
• In this, student match one object to one other object or person.
EXAMPLE   1.      Look at the figures below carefully. Find the odd on out. (a)   (b)   (c)    (d) Explanation (d):                Find the similarities of the four figures. Figures in option (a), (b) and (c) are same. So, figure in option (d) is different from the other three figures.     2.      Look at the figures below carefully. Find the odd one out. (a) (b)         (c)    (d)   Explanation (c):                  All the figures have same shape and size. Figures in option (a), (b) and (d) have shaded parts on a common side. The shaded parts option (c) are not on a  common side. So, figure in option (c) is different from the rest.

#### Analogy

In analogy, pair of figures are given on each side of: There is a certain relationship between each pair. The student has to identify the relation of the given pair and find the missing figure.   EXAMPLE   Direction (I-II): There is a certain relationship between the pair of figures given on either side of :: Identify the relationship of the given pair and find the missing figure. I.           (a)               (b)               (c)              (d)   Explanation (a):     First we will discuss the relation between the pair of figures on the left of : Inner element of first figure becomes outer element of second figure and outer element of first figure becomes inner element of second figure of the pair. Elements on the edges of outer figure in first disappear in second figure.     II. (a)               (b)               (c)               (d)     Explanation (c):      First we discuss about the relation between the left pair. Outer most shape of first figure becomes inner most of second figure, middle is stable, inner most of first figure becomes outer most of second figures.

#### Ranking Test

EXAMPLE   Direction (1-2): Observe the given figure carefully and answer the given question. 1.     Teddy__________ is to the immediate left of fourth teddy.           (a) P                            (b) T                            (c) R                            (d) S   Explanation (c): W is last and eighth teddy. So, s is fourth teddy. Hence R is immediate left of fourth teddy.   2.     Teddy ________ is immediate right of T.           (a) R                            (b) S                            (c) U                            (d) V   Explanation (c):     U is immediate right of T.

#### Grouping of Figures and Embedded Figures

Type I - In these type of questions, the candidate is required to analyze the given set of figures, numbers and classify them into groups.   Type II - Identify the group of given figures.                    Type III - Finding the number of groups of 2's, 3's, 4's, ....... could be formed  from the given objects.     Embedded Figures A figure (X) is said to be embedded in a figure (Y), if figure (Y) contains figure (X) as its part.   Type I: Identify the small part hidden in the given figure. In such types of problems, a figure (X) is given, followed by four parts. One of them is embedded in figure (X). Candidate has to identify such part.     Type II: Identify the figure in which the given part is hidden. In such type of problems a figure (X) is given followed by four complex figures in such a way figure (X) is embedded in one and only one of them. The candidate has to select such figure in which figure (X) is embedded.     EXAMPLE   1.         How many groups of 2?s can be formed?                         (a) 20                           (b) 10                           (c) 40                           (d) 30   Explanation (a): Total 20 groups can be formed from given images.     2.       In which group the given shape belongs?                                                       (a) P only                     (b) Q only                    (c) Both P and Q                     (d) P, Q and R   Explanation (d): Shape is a triangle and groups P, Q and R are having it.   more...

#### Coding - Decoding

How to decode the questions given in coded language? In this type of questions, some particular words are assigned certain substituted names. Then a question is asked, that is to be answered in the substituted code language.   EXAMPLE   1.     If "house" is called 'kennel', 'kennel' is called 'hole', "hole" is called 'nest', then in which place do dogs live?          (a) house                                 (b) hole                                 (c) nest                                     (d) kennel Explanation (b): Dogs live in kennel, but kennel is called hole.   2.     If "purple" is called 'white', 'white' is called 'green', 'green' is called 'blue', then which colour is on the last strip of Indian flag?          (a) purple                                 (b) white                               (c) green                                  (d) blue Explanation (d): Last strip is of green colour and green is called blue.

#### Trending Current Affairs

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 Slanting Lines Properties of Shapes Cone Rectangle à  Triangular and circular faces Vertical Lines à  Pair of opposite sides are equal. à  Four corners, Four sides Square Cylinder Horizontal Lines à  All four sides are equal. à  Four corners, Four Sides à  Rectangular and circular faces Circle Curved Lines à  No corner Triangle Cube All Slanting, Vertical and Horizontal lines are Straight lines. à  Three sides, Three corners 6 square faces, 12 sides, 8 corners