Current Affairs 2nd Class

Computer Skill

Computer Skill   Introduction Computer is widely used for different purposes. The computer user should familiar about how the computer is used to do the specific task, such as word processing, spread sheet and power point presentation, etc. But the computer skill helps us to do the work on computer with better ways and productivity. This chapter includes how can the different parts of a computer used properly used properly and effectively.   Using Keyboard The keys of keyboard is sensitive, therefore, they should be pressed softly. Roughly pressing keys and long holding finger on keys may cause repeated typing of same letter on the screen. Fingers should be placed properly on the keyboard, the first finger of left hand should be placed on the letter F, and rest of the fingers of the left hand should be placed accordingly. The thumb of the left and is placed on the space bar. The first finger of the right hand should be placed on the letter J and rest of the fingers of the left hand should be placed accordingly. The thumb of the right hand automatically touches the space bar.  We should also learn about the uses of function keys,  mathematical operators keys, numeric keys and special keys, such as, control key marked as Ctrl, shift key, Alt key, Caps lock key, Tab key, etc. The combination of two or more keys is used to do the different functions on the computer, such as, the keys combinations, Ctrl + N is used to open a new window in running window of the same application.   Look at the following picture of correct places of fingers on keyboard: Using Mouse A mouse is connect to the computer through wire or without wire. The pointer on the computer screen appears due to mouse connected to the computer and it moves according to rolling the mouse on mouse pad. Usually a mouse has two buttons and one wheel. The buttons of the mouse are left and right button which are used for performing an action on clicking them. The centre wheel rotates to move the page on the screen.   more...

Analogy

OBJECTIVES   ·         Students will be able to explore relationships between like and unlike things. ·         They will understand the more obscure things by picturing the more common things. ·         Students will visualize characters and places. ·         They begin to relate analogies with real life.   INTRODUCTION An analogy is a comparison between things which are basically not alike but which share some kind of striking similarity.   HOW TO READ ANALOOIES   The symbol (: ) means "is to" and the symbol (: :) means "as." Thus, the analogy, "apple: fruit:: carrot: vegetable," should be read "apple is to fruit as carrot is to vegetable." Stated another way, the relationship between apple and fruit is the same as the relationship between carrot and vegetable.   Steps to Solve Step 1: Look carefully at the first pair of examples. Step 2: How are these two pairs connected?                   Step 3: Complete the second pair in the same way as the first pair. Step 4: Make sure that all the necessary changes are made.       Types of Analogy     (i) Picture-based Analogy   Directions (Examples 1-2): Choose the correct matching pair.     1. (a) (b) (c) (d) Ans.     (b) Explanation: The first figure is a part of second figure and the second image is the complete figure. So, the correct answer is (b).       2. (a) (b) (c) (d) Ans.     (c) Explanation: Pair of figures on the left side of: : are vegetables. Pair of figures on the right side of: : are fruits.     (ii) Number-based Analogy     Direction (Example 3): Choose the correct matching pair.   3. (a) 4                                                      (b) 1            (c) 6                                                      (d) 7     Ans.     (c) Explanation: As,        $2\times 2=4$455001 Similarly,                                                             $3\times 2=6$ So, the correct answer is (c).   (iii) Alphabet-based Analogy     Direction: Choose the correct matching pair. 4. (a) D                             (b) Z              (c) Y                             (d) U   Ans.     (b) Explanation: Letter B more...

Patterns

OBJECTIVES   ·         Students will identify patterns in pictures/shapes, numbers and letters. ·         They will develop to extend given patterns. ·         They help students to be aware of patterns in their daily surroundings. ·         Patterns serve as the foundation of algebraic thinking.     INTRODUCTION A pattern is a repeated design or recurring sequence. It is a set of pictures/ shapes, letters or numbers arranged according to a certain rule.   Type I Find the missing term or next term in (number or letter) series to continue the given series. ·         Identify the order of series (descending or ascending order). Observe the pattern using operations: addition, subtraction, skip counting and reverse counting. ·         Identify the order of alphabetical series either A to Z or Z to A. ·         Numbering of alphabets series either A to Z or Z to A. ·         Skipping letters/numbers.     Type II Find the missing term in the pattern? ·         Identify the missing term in the pattern by observing the rule followed in rest of the given terms.   Type III   Find the missing part in the figure pattern. ·         Complete the figure pattern by drawing its incomplete part in the pattern.       (i) Picture / Shape-based Pattern     Example 1.       What comes next in the pattern given? (a) (b) (c) (d) Ans.     (c) Explanation: The elements are decreasing by one in each step. So, the correct answer is (c).     Example 2.       Find the rule followed in the figure pattern and the missing figure. (a) (b) (c) (d) Ans.     (c) Each figure in the row repeats itself after two figures. So, the missing figure is (c).         (ii) Number-based Pattern     Example 3.       What comes next in the given pattern? (a) 7                                          (b) 8            (c) 10                                        (d) 6 Ans.     (d) Numbers are given in ascending order. So, the correct answer is (d).     Example 4.       Complete the number pattern. more...

Sequence

OBJECTIVES   ·         Students will learn to arrange words/events in a meaningful order. ·         They will develop the ability to know association and order. ·         Students will learn how arithmetic, geometric and other sequences relate to the real world.     INTRODUCTION A sequence is a set of related events, movements, or items that follow each::her in a particular order.       TYPES OF SEQUENCE     TYPE - I: SEQUENCE OF WORDS     In this particular type of problem, certain interrelated words are given and numbered, followed by various sequences of the numbers denoting them, as alternatives.   Students are required to arrange these words in a logical sequence based on a common property and then Choose the correctly graded sequence from the given data.   Examples:   1.            Arrange the words given below in a meaningful sequence. 1. Key       2. Door      3. Lock      4. Room     5. Switch on (a) 5, 1, 2, 4, 3                           (b) 4, 2, 1, 5, 3    (c) 1, 3, 2, 4, 5                                       (d) 1, 2, 3, 5, 4   Ans.     (c) Explanation: The correct order is: 2.            Arrange the given words in a meaningful sequence. 1. Skull      2. Shoulder    3. Neck      4. Face     5. Legs (a) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5                           (b) 1, 4, 3, 2, 5    (c) 1, 3, 4, 2, 5                                       (d) 1, 4, 2, 3, 5   Ans.     (b) The meaningful sequence is 3.            Arrange the given words in a meaningful sequence. 1. Animal                                  2. Cow       3. Grass                                     4. Mammal 5. Milk (a) 4, 1, 2, 5, 3                           (b) 1, 4, 2, 5, 3    (c) 1, 4, 2, 3, 5                                       (d) 4, 1, 2, 3, 5   Ans.     (c) The meaningful sequence is: 4.            Arrange the given pictures in the proper sequence by using their alphabets. (a) ABCD                      (b) DCBA      (c) BCAD                       (d) CBDA   Ans.     (d) CBDA is the proper sequence       TYPE - II: FORMATION OF WORDS     In these type more...

Odd One Out

OBJECTIVES   ·         To train the students to find things that are similar or different. ·         To distinctly identify things on the basis of their shape, size, colour etc. ·         to help students make connections between the words and to know the process involved in it etc,       INTRODUCTION Odd one out is the only one different from all in some manner. The student is required to choose this one item which does not fit into the given group.     Steps to Solve Step 1: Look carefully each of pictures, numbers, words and figures. Step 2: Find the common feature among them. Step 3: Choose the item which does not has common feature.       Types of Odd One Out     (i) Picture or figure-based odd one out     Directions: Examples (1 to 5): Select the odd one out.       1.            (a) (b) (c) (d) Ans.     (d)                                                    Explanation: All others have four objects while option (d) has five objects. So, the correct answer is d.         2.            (a) (b) (c) (d) Ans.     (d) Except (d), in all other figures there are one small shaded figure.       (ii) Number-based odd one out   3.                (a) 5                                          (b) 10            (c) 12                                        (d) 20   Ans.     (c)   Explanation: All others except (c) are multiples of 5. So, the correct answer is (c).       (iii) Alphabet-based odd one out   4.            (a) A                                         (b) R              (c) P                                          (d) Q   Ans.     (a)   Explanation: All others except (a) are consonant, while A is a vowel. So, the correct answer is (a).       (iv) Word-based odd one out   5.            (a) Mug                                     (b) Bucket       (c) Soap                                    (d) Bed   Ans.     (d)   Explanation: All the objects except (d) belong to bathroom. So, the correct answer is (d).

Position/Ranking Test

OBJECTIVES     ·         To enhance structural and locational abilities. ·         To trace out specific mentioned positions according to a certain given pattern.     INTRODUCTION Position or Ranking is a place of something in a certain given conditions. Type I ·         Identify the position of an object/a person from the left end or right end and rank them from the top or from the bottom. Type II ·         In this type, identify positions of two persons/objects by interchanging. Type III ·         Identify the position of an object/a person with respect to the position or rank of other person. Type IV ·         Identify the position of an object/a person after removing some object/ person from the series.     Steps to Solve Step 1: See carefully all items given in the figure. Step 2: Identify the position of an object a person from left end or right end. Step 3: Think and choose the right option.       Examples:     1. The position of the ice-cream in the circle is _______ ? (a) 3rd from the left end               (b) 6th from the left end (c) 4th from the right end             (d) In the centre   Ans.     (b) Explanation: Circled ice-cream is 6th from the left end.       2. The 4th flower from the right end is flower ________. (a) E                                         (b) D           (c) F                                          (d) C   Ans.     (a) Explanation: It is clearly shown from the given flowers that E is fourth from the right end.       3.            Which flower is fourth to the right of flower R? (a) S                                         (b) G             (c) F                                          (d) E Ans.     (b) Flower G is fourth to the right of flower R.       4.            If the table is removed from the arrangement shown below, then which item is third to the left of the fourth item from the right end? (a) (b) (c) (d) Ans.     (a) Stapler is third to the left of the fourth item from the right end.       5.            Study the given pictures carefully. more...

Coding Decoding

OBJECTIVES       ·         To transmit an information from one place to other using some codes so as to reach to other person safely. ·         To judge a child's ability to decipher the rule that codes a particular word and number.       INTRODUCTION A Code is a 'system of signals'. Coding is a method of transmitting a message between the sender and the receiver without a third person knowing it. Before transmitting, the data is encoded and at receiver side encoded data is decoded in order to obtain original data by determining common key in encoded data.       TYPES OF CODING-DECODING 1.     Letter Coding 2.     Number Coding 3.     Substitution Coding       Type I: Letter Coding     In this type, the real alphabets are replaced by certain other alphabets according to a specific rule to form its code. Students are required to detect the common rule and answer the questions accordingly.       Case 1: Direct letter coding:   Example 1: In a certain code, RAN is written as SBO and BAT is CBU, then how will be RAT be written in that code? (a) SAU                                     (b) RBT        (c) SBU                                     (d) UBS Ans.     (c) Explanation:
Letter      R A N B T
Code        S B O C more...

Spatial Understanding

OBJECTIVES     ·         Students will understand their location and the location of an object in relation to their bodies. ·         They will come to learn concepts such as direction, distance and location. ·         Spatial awareness help us understand, interact and appreciate the place we live. ·         Students will be able to keep up to date with their surroundings and make sense of their cities.     INTRODUCTION Spatial understanding is an organized knowledge of objects including oneself in a given space. Spatial understanding also involves understanding of these objects when there is a change of position and form. Questions asked in this chapter are based on following topics. Inside / Outside, Above / Below, Top / Bottom, Far / Near, On / Under, Thick / Thin and Few More     Examples:   1.            Number of balls inside the net is ________. (a) 7                                          (b) 6            (c) 5                                          (d) 2   Ans.     (a) Number of balls inside the net is 7.           2.            Number of apples outside the box is _______. (a) 2                                          (b) 8            (c) 3                                          (d) 4   Ans.     (c) Number of apples outside the box is 3         3.            How many flowers are outside the vase? (a) 3                              (b) 4              (c) 5                              (d) 2   Ans.     (b) 4 flowers are outside the vase.         Direction (Examples 4 and 5): Observe the picture carefully and answer the following questions. 4.            How many children are there inside the bus? (a) 2                                          (b) 3             (c) 1                                          (d) 4   Ans.     (d) There are 4 children inside the bus.         5.            How many children are standing outside the bus? (a) 5                                          (b) 7            (c) 3                                          (d) 0   Ans.     (a) There are 5 children standing outside the bus.

Geometrical Shapes

OBJECTIVES     ·         Students will know the properties of different 2D and 3D shapes. ·         Students will recognize difference between 2D and 3D shapes. ·         Students will learn how to move a shape around, enlarge it, rotate it without it being change in shape.     INTRODUCTION Geometry is all about shapes and their properties. Geometrical shapes consists of points, lines, planes, square etc.         SHAPES AND THEIR NAMES       2D Geometrical Shapes
 1. Rectangle 2. Square 3. Circle 4. Oval 5. Triangle
3D Geometrical Shapes Cube Cuboid Sphere
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Embedded Figure

OBJECTIVES     ·         Students will learn to manipulate their mental image of an object in order to reach a certain conclusion. ·         They will constitute a noticeable feature of something.     INTRODUCTION Embedded figure is a part of a non-verbal reasoning and it is used to evaluate cognitive skills in children.     Definition Imbedded figure means to find out the hidden figure/shape in a given figure.       Examples     1.            Identify the figure in which following figure (X) is embedded/hidden? (a) (b) (c) (d) Ans.     (b) The given figure (X) is embedded in figure (b) So, option (b) is correct.         2.            Observe the figure carefully and answer the question based on it. Which shape is embedded in the above figure? (a) (b) (c) (d) Ans.     (d) Shape given in option (d) is embedded/hidden in the figure as shown below. So, option (d) is correct.         3.            Which of the following parts is embedded in the given figure (X)? (a) (b) (c) (d) Ans.     (d) Shape given in option (d) is embedded in the given figure as shown below. So, option (d) is correct.         4.            Helly drew four different teddies as shown below. Identify the teddy in which of the following figure (X) is embedded. (a) (b) (c) (d) Ans.     (c) The given figure (X) is embedded in teddy (c) as shown below. So, more...

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