Current Affairs 1st Class

Analogy

OBJECTIVE
• Students will understanding how analogies used.
• Students will be able to make comparisons between concepts and complete analogies.
INTRODUCTION An analogy is comparison things which are basically not alike but which share some kind of striking similarity.   HOW TO “READ” ANALOGIES The symbol (:) means “is to” and the symbol (: :) means “as.” Thus, the analogy, “apple: fruit: carrot: vegetable,” should be read “apple is to fruit as carrot is to vegetable.” Stated another way, the relationship between apple and fruit is the same as the relationship carrot and vegetable.   STEPS TO SOLVE Step 1:  Look carefully at the first pair of examples. Step 2:  How are these two pairs connected? Step 3:  Complete the second pair in the same way as the first pair. Step 4: Make sure that all the necessary changes are made.   Types of Analogy   (i) Picture Based Analogy   Directions (Examples 1 - 2): Choose the correct matching pair. 1. (a)                                   (b)                        (c)                                     (d)   Ans.     (b)   The first figure is a part of second figure and the second image is the complete figure. So, the correct answer is (b).                            2. (a)                 (b) (c)                    (d) Ans.     (c) more...

Grouping

THEORY   Grouping is a set or arrangement of pictures, things or objects in a group. Type I: In this type of questions, the student is required to analyze the given set of things, pictures, numbers and put them into groups of 2's, 3's... Type II: Finding the number of groups of 2's, $3's,\text{ }...$ that could be formed from the given things/objects.    Examples       1. There are 4 equal groups of______ cookies.   (a) 3                                          (b) 4 (c) 2                                          (d) 1 Ans.     (c) There are 4 equal groups of 2 cookies.                      2. The shape  can be placed in which group? (a) M                                         (b) N (c) O                                         (d) M, N, O Ans.     (b) The shape can be placed in group.                   3. There are ________ groups of 6 toys. (a) 3                                          (b) 4 (c) 5                                          (d) 2 Ans.     (a) There are 3 groups of 6 toys.               4. Arrange the transports according to their weight (Light to Heavy). more...

Patterns

OBJECTIVES
•         Students will identify patterns in pictures/shapes, numbers and letters.
•           They will develop to extend given patterns.
•           They help students to be aware of patterns in their daily surroundings.
•           They will help them to sort and group objects.
•           Patterns serve as the foundation of algebraic thinking.
INTRODUCTION A pattern is a repeated design or recurring sequence. It is a set of pictures/shapes, letters or numbers arranged according to a certain rule.   Type I Find the missing term or next term in (number or letter) series to continue the given series.
• Identify the order of series (descending or ascending order). Observe the pattern using operations: addition, subtraction, skip counting and reverse counting.
• Identify the order of alphabetical series either A to Z or Z to A.
• Numbering of alphabets series either A to Z or Z to A.
• Skipping letters/numbers.
Type II Find the missing term in the pattern?
• Identify the missing term in the pattern by observing the rule followed in rest of the given terms.
Type III Find the missing part in the figure pattern.
• Complete the figure pattern by drawing its incomplete part in the pattern.
Examples: (i) Picture / Shape-based Pattern                                1.  What comes next in the pattern given? (a)                               (b) (c)                               (d)        Ans. (c) The elements are decreasing by one in each step. So, the correct answer is (c).         2.  Find the rule followed in the figure pattern and the more...

Odd One Out

OBJECTIVE
• To train the students to find things that are similar or different.
• To distinctly identify things on the basis of their shape, size, colour etc.
• To help students make connections between the word and to know the process involved in it etc.
INTRODUCTION Odd one out is the only one different from all in some manner. The student is required to choose this one item which does not fit into the given group. Steps to Solve Step 1: Look carefully each of pictures, numbers, words and figures. Step 2: Find the common feature among them. Step 3: Choose the item which does not has common feature.   Types of Odd One Out   (i) Picture or figure-based odd one out 1. Directions: Select the odd one out.
• (a)                      (b)
• (c)                         (d)
•         Ans. (d) All others have four objects while option (d) has five objects. So, the correct answer is d.              2. Directions: Select the odd one out.         (a)                              (b)         (c)                             (d)     Ans. (d) Except (d), in all other figures there are one small shaded figure.   (ii) Number-based odd one out                3. Directions: Select more...

Ranking Test

OBJECTIVE
• To enhance structural and locational abilities.
• To trace out specific mentioned positions according to a certain given pattern.
INTRODUCTION Position or Ranking is a place of something in a certain given conditions.   Type I
• Identify the position of an object/a person from the left end or right end and rank them from the top or from the bottom.
Type II
• In this type, identify positions of two persons/objects by interchanging.
Type III
• Identify the position of an object/a person with respect to the position or rank of other person.
Type IV
• Identify the position of an object/a person after removing some object person from the series.
Steps to Solve
• Step 1: See carefully all items given in the figure.
• Step 2: Identify the position of an object/ a person from left end or right end.
• Step 3: Think and choose the right option.
Examples                     1.            The position of the ice-cream in the circle is _______? (a) 3rd from the left end               (b) 6th from the left end (c) 4th from the right end             (d) In the centre   Ans.     (b) Circled ice-cream is 6th from the left end.                        2.            The 4th flower from the right end is flower _______. (a) E                                         (b) D (c) F                                          (d) C   Ans.     (a) It is clearly shown from the given flowers that E is fourth from the right end                       3.            Which flower is fourth to the right of flower R?   (a) S                                         (b) G (c) F                                          (d) E   Ans.     (b) Flower G is fourth to the right of flower R.                                                   4.            If the table is removed from the arrangement shown below, then which item is third to the left of the fourth item from the right end?   (a)                               (b)   (c)                             (d)     Ans.

Problem-Solving

OBJECTIVE
• Students will identify different problem solving styles and methods.
• They will apply methods to specific problems.
• A problem-solving approach can be used to encourage students to make) generalization about rules and concepts.
• It develops students confidence in their own ability to think mathematically.
INTODUCTION Problem solving is a process of working through details of a problem to reach a solution.
• Students will learn the use of one piece of information in the problem.
• They will organise the given information.
Examples   1.    Rihana plucks 5 flowers in her garden. The 1st flower is pink. The 2nd flower is white. The 3rd flower is pink. If this pattern continues, what colour is the 5th flower? (a) White                                   (b) Pink         (c) Red                                      (d) Yellow   Ans.     (b) The pattern is as follows: So, the colour of the 5th flower is Pink.   2.     There are 2 bikes and 2 cars in a parking lot. How many wheels do they have in all? (a) 16                                        (b) 8            (c) 24                                        (d) 12   Ans.     (d) A bike has 2 wheels. 2 bikes have 2+2=4 wheels A car has 4 wheels 2 cars have =4+4=8 wheels Total wheels = 4 + 8 = 12   3.    Misha went to the grocery store. She bought 18 packs of cookies and 12 packs of noodles. How many packs of groceries did she buy in all? (a) 12                                        (b) 26           (c) 30                                        (d) 18   Ans.     (c) 18 + 12 = 30 So, she bought 30 packs of groceries in all.   4.     Jay had 14 marbles in his collection. He lost 6 marbles. How many marbles does he have now? (a) 20                                        (b) 14          (c) 6                                          (d) 8   Ans.     (d) 14 - 6 = 8 He now has 8 marbles   5.    Lina said, "My number is the same as the number of fingers on my two hands."
• Mohit said, "My number is 4 less than Lina's."
What is Mohit's number? (a) 5                                          (b) 6            (c) 7                                          (d) 10   Ans.     (b) more...

Estimation

OBJECTIVE
• Students will involve in estimating real-life quantities such as distances, areas and volumes.
• Estimation allows students to make judgments about how much time, money, food..... they will need.
• In estimation, students use their mathematical reasoning which ultimately saves time and money.
INTRODUCTION Estimation is a rough calculation of the value, number, quantity, or extent of something.   Examples   1.         How many sweets are there in the box? Estimate. (a) 6                                          (b) 7            (c) 8                                          (d) 9   Ans.     (b) There are 7 sweets in the box                       2.            Reha went to the zoo and saw some Giraffes and Alligators. She made a picture graph of the animals at the zoo: Which animal did she see fewer of? (a) Alligators                               (b) Giraffes      (c) Both                                     (d) None of them   Ans.     (b) Count the number of each animal in the graph. She saw 7 Alligators and 3 Giraffes. So, she saw fewer Giraffes.                         3.            Which bus is the shortest among them? (a) P                                         (b) Q           (c) R                                          (d) S   Ans.     (d) Bus S is shortest among them.                        4.            Which tower is taller than B? (a) A                                         (b) B            (c) C                                         (d) D   Ans.     (d) Tower D is taller than B.                          5.            Estimate the weight of an eraser?                     (a) 2 g                                       (b) 2 kg         (c) 200 g                                    (d) 5 kg   Ans.     (a) The estimated weight of a rubber is 2 g.

Spatial Under standing

OBJECTIVE
• Students will understand their location and the location of an object in relation to their bodies.
• They will come to learn concepts such as direction, distance and location
• Spatial awareness helps us understand, interact and appreciate the places we live.
• Students will be able to keep up to date with their surroundings and make sense of their cities.
INTRODUCTION Spatial understanding is an organised knowledge of objects including oneself in a given space. Spatial understanding also involves understanding of these objects when there is a change of position and form. Questions asked in this chapter are based on following topics. Inside / Outside, Above / Below, Top / Bottom, Far / Near, On / Under, Thick / Thin and Few More   Examples                         1.            Number of balls inside the net is________. (a) 7                                          (b) 6            (c) 5                                          (d) 2   Ans.     (a) Number of balls inside the net is 7.                        2.            Number of apples outside the box is _________. (a) 2                                          (b) 8            (c) 3                                          (d) 4   Ans.     (c) Number of apples outside the box is 3                         3.            How many flowers are outside the vase? (a) 3                                          (b) 4              (c) 5                                          (d) 2 Ans.     (b) 4 flowers are outside the vase.       Direction (Examples 4 and 5): Observe the picture carefully and answer the following questions.                                               4.            How many children are there inside the bus? (a) 2                                          (b) 3             (c) 1                                          (d) 4   Ans.     (d) There are 4 children inside the bus.                            5.            more...

Geometrical Shapes

OBJECTIVES
• Students will know the properties of different 2D and 3D shapes.
• Students will recognise difference between 2D and 3D shapes,
• Students will learn how to move a shape around, enlarge it, and rotate if without it being changed in shape.
INTRODUCTION Geometry is all about shapes and their properties. Geometrical shapes consists of points, lines, planes, square etc.     SHAPES AND THEIR NAMES   more...

Visual Reasoning

OBJECTIVE
• Students will understand the relationship of visual information to its real-world context.
• They will learn to identify what the object might look like from another side.
INTRODUCTION Visual reasoning is the process of analyzing visual information and being able to solve problems based upon it. Question based on Visual Reasoning:
• Views from different Sides
•   Shadows   A Shadow is formed where light can’t reach. The larger the light source, the larger the Shadow. Shadows are place where light is "blocked".   View From Different Sides   A view is a way of seeing something from a particular position. There can be different views of a thing from different sides.   Different Views of Car from Different Sides   Examples                    1.            Identify the shadow of the given figure (X).                      (a)                                          (b)     (c)                                           (d)         Ans.     (d)                       2.            Which one of the following pictures of a Cap has front view? (a)                                        (b)    (c)                                        (d)     Ans.     (a) Option (a) has the front view of a cap.                        3.            Match the shadow on the right hand side with the correct picture on the left.
 S. no. 2D Geometrical Shapes 3D Geometrical Shapes 1. 2. 3.
A more...

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