Current Affairs 1st Class

ANIMAL LIFE     FUNDAMENTALS
  •                      There are many kinds of animals around us. Some are big. Some are small. Some of them live in forests, some live with human beings, some fly in air, some swim in water etc.
  •                     Wild animals are animals that live in forests. They eat grass and flesh of other animals. Tiger is a wild animal which has been declared as the national animal of India by the Indian government. Some of the wild animals harm us and some of them do not.
e.g., Lion, tiger, cheetahs, wolf, bear etc.
  •                     Domestic animals are the animals that have been tamed and kept by human beings as a work animal, food source or pet. Men keep them for milk, food, riding hunting, tilling the land and for many other useful services.
e.g., cow, The cow is the most useful of all the domestic animals, It gives us milk. It is the principal food for babies and sick people.
  •                   Water Animals\[\to \] The animals which live in water are called water animals. They may be big or small. These animals are found in deep water bodies such as seas, ocean etc. Fishes live in water. They breath with help of gills e.g., shark whale, dolphin, crocodile, octopus etc.
         
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PLANT   FUNDAMENTALS
  •                       A plant is a living thing. They need air, water and sunlight to grow.
  •                        Plans include all types of big and small trees. Including grasses, shrubs and herbs.
  •                       Big trees have long branches, Large in size e.g. banyan tree. peepal tree, neem tree etc.
  •                    Herbs are small plants. It has a soft stem and live for a few months. They are used for flavor, scent and as medicine e.g. mint, grass, wheat, muleti.
  •                    Shrubs or bushes are small plants which have woody stem. They are smaller than trees. They live for many years. E.g. rose plant, hibiscus etc.
 
  •                    Creepers are plants that grow along the soil surface and spread over a long distance. e. g. muskmelon plant, watermelon plant, pumpkin plant.  
  •                   Climber plants have very soft stem and take support of another plant to climb. They cannot stand straight e.g. beans plant, jasmine plant, grapevine, money plant, pea plant,
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Food we Eat     FUNDAMENTALS
  •                        All living beings need food gives us energy to do various work. Any nutrition
Substance that people or animals eat or drink is called food. Food is the basic necessity of all of us.
  •                        Our body needs mainly following nutrients to remain healthy-
  •          Protein
  •         Carbohydrate
  •         Fats
  •         Vitamin
  •         Water
  •         Roughage
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Nutrient Functions
(a) Protein more...
OUR CLOTHS     FUNDAMENTALS
  •                        Clothing is one of our basic needs. Clothes protect us from heat, cold and rain. There are various kinds of clothes available for different climate conditions.
(a) Cotton clothes (b) Woolen clothes (c) Waterproof clothes
  •                      Cotton clothes are very soft and comfortable. Cotton clothes protect us from heat of the Sun. It absorbs the sweat and help in keeping our body cool.
  •                      Cotton is a natural fiber. New born babies are also given cotton due to its softness. The various cotton dresses are frocks, T- shirt, salwar suits, shirts, trousers, socks, cap, saree etc.
  •                      Woolen clothes are made up of wool. These clothes keeps our body warm and protect us from cold in winter season. Wool is mainly obtained from sheep. The commonly used woolen clothes used woolen clothes are coat, Sweaters, woolen socks, caps, baby suits etc.
  •                       Raincoat and umbrellas are used in rainy season. They are made up of polymers and plastic. They save us from getting wet in the rainy reason.
  •                       Clothes are made from fibers. We obtain clothes from both plants and animals.
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Air, Water and its Resources     FUNDAMENTALS
  •                        Air is present everywhere. It is mixture of different gases like nitrogen, oxygen, carbon - dioxide etc.
  •                        Living things need air to breathe.
  •                       Air cannot be seen with our naked eyes. Air has no colour, taste or smell.
  •                        Air occupies space. Air was weight, e.g. When football is filled with air it has weight, wheels of car, buses, cycles etc.
  •                       Air is necessary for life. Without air, life is not possible.
  •                      The moving air is called wind. When the winds blow gently, it is called breeze. Motion of air from sea to land is called sea breeze and land to sea is called land breeze. A breeze is very pleasant. All the living being enjoys the gentle wind.
  •                       When the wind blows strongly, it is called storm. A storm is very harmful. It can uproot trees, damage plants, break window panes and blow off the roof of huts. Storm are of different types - dust storm, snow storm, rainstorm etc.
  •                     Wind is used for many purposes such as to dry clothes, fly kites, fill hot air balloons, sail boat, run windmills, generate electricity etc.
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 OUR FAMILY AND NEIGHBOURHOOD   FUNDAMENTALS
  •                      A mother, father and child or children makes a family. Father and mother are called parent of the child. A family lives together in a house. Family can be big or small.
  •                       The member of the family love and care for each other. The children obey and respect their elders.
  •                      A small family consists of parents and one or two children. A small is also called nuclear family. A small family is a happy family.
  •                       A big family consist of father, mother, one or two children (i.e. brother, sister) and grandparents. A big family has many people living in one house. This type of family is also called as joint family.
  •                       A joint family has a lot of people. Parents, children, grandfather, uncle?s aunts and cousin live together in a family.
  •                       A family plays an important role in the society. Each and every family has its own customs, which all the family members follow. Our family and relative are the important part of our life. They play a vital role in physical and mental development.
  •                      Neighborhood is a place near our houses.
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LIVING AND NON-LIVING THINGS     FUNDAMENTALS
  •                      All living organisms have life e.g., human beings plants, animals Birds, insects.
  •                       The various characteristic of living things are as follows:
(i) They need food, air and water. (A boy eats ice cream, animals eat grass and flesh of other animals, birds eat grains and insects etc.) (ii) They can move, Human beings and animals move on their own, Plants cannot move but show movements. Example: Human beings, animals, plants. (iii) They can grow over a period of time. (Infants grows into adult, kitten grow to become a cat. (iv) They can breath            (v) They can reproduce (vi) They grow old and die.  
  •                          Both plant and trees are living things as they grow, breath and show movements.
  •                         Non- living things do not have life e.g., bed, pencil box, T.V. bottle etc.
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Air and Water   Air and water are two very important things for our life. We can live for few days without food, but we cannot live for a moment without air.   Air Air is a mixture of gases. It is all around us. We can neither see it nor can touch it. Bid we can feel it's presence. You can understand this from one simple exercise. Take a balloon. Blow air into it. The size of balloon will increase. This shows that air causes the balloon to blow. Now take a pin and prick the balloon. All the air will come out and the balloon will fall flat.     Air makes the life possible on earth. Not only have human beings, even plants and animals also needed air to live.   Water Water is a liquid. It is colourless, tasteless, odourless and is very necessary for our life We need water for: (i) Drinking (ii) Cleaning (iii) Taking bath (iv) Various household works (v) Growing plants (vi) Our factories and industries and for many more purposes.   Sources of Water Rivers, lakes are the sources of pure water. Wells are the sources of ground water. Tap water that comes to our homes is collected from rivers but first purified in water plants and then supplied to us. Seas and oceans are the big water bodies. But we cannot use this water for drinking because water of seas and oceans is very salty. We should drink clean water. Because drinking unclean water may cause many diseases.

My Family and Relatives   We all live in a house with our father, mother, brother and sister. Our parents, brother and sister make our family.   Image result for family   A small family in which mother and father live with their children is known as a nuclear family. Again, in some families not only parents and children, but also their uncle, aunty their children along with grand parents live together. Such family is called a joint family. All the members of a family generally have common surname. Brother of our father is known as paternal uncle. Brother of our mother is known as maternal uncle. Our uncle's children are our cousins. Our family is our first teacher,                             A chart is given herewith to give you an idea of a family tree:    Related image Structure of family tree                                         If you count yourself, your mother, father, your sister and brother as a family, then other peoples shown in the diagram are your relatives. Every member of a family, whether it is a small one or a large joint family, has a very important role to play and needed by all the other members. Similarly a family has important role in the area in which it stays and other families depend on it. These families, when taken together, form a society. The members of a family have many things in common. They look similar, talk and behave in a similar way. Some members of a family are sometimes affectionately called by a short name, which is known as pet name or nick name. Some families follow certain practices which may not be followed by other families. Such practices are called customs of the family. Our family and relatives are the important part of our life. They help us in our physical and mental development.    

Our Neighbourhood   Neighbourhood The places near our house is our neighbourhood. In our neighbourhood there are many houses. People who live in those houses are our neighbours. In our neighbourhood there are many places, which are very useful to us.   Post Office A place from where we can send letters.   Image result for Post Office   School A place where we study and learn. Image result for school   Hospital A place where doctor treats us when we fall sick.   Image result for hospital   People who Help Us
  • There are so many people at work in our neighbourhood.
  • Teacher helps us to learn.
  • Doctor treats us when we are not well.
  Image result for Doctor Images in Full HD  
  • Vegetable seller sells vegetables.
  • Mason makes houses for us.
  • Watchman guards our houses.
Image result for  Watchman guards  
  • Carpenter makes furniture for us.
  • In our school, number of people works.
Teacher: Teacher teaches us different subjects. Gardener: He keeps our garden and playground proper and grows plants and grasses wherever required.      Image result for Gardener   Sweeper: He keeps our classroom and school campus clean and tidy.   Image result for Sweeper   Gate keeper: He takes care of the school gate and keep records of the people visiting our school. Principal: Principal is the head of the school. Librarian: He takes care of the library of our school.
  • We learn many things at our school:
  • We learn to read and write.
  • We learn to draw.
  • We learn to do sums.
  • We learn to share our things with others.
  • We learn many games and take part in sports and other activities.
  Our Pets Many people keep some animals in their houses. These animals are called pets. Some people keep fishes, some keep parrots, some dogs and cats at their homes as their                                                                                        Fish                             Dog                              Parrot   All pets need a place to live in. Fishes are kept in an aquarium. Rabbits live in a hutch. A dog lives in a kennel.            Image result for Rabbits live<a href= more...



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