Current Affairs 1st Class

                                                             Clothes We Wear   We wear clothes according to the weather. Clothes protect us from heat, cloud, winds and rain. The clothes are made of different materials.
  • Cotton Clothes are made of cotton.
  • We get cotton from the cotton plant.
  • Woolen clothes are made of wool.
  • We get wool from sheep.
  • Raincoats are made of waterproof materials.
  • In ancient days people used to wear leaves and skin of animal as clothes.
  • Clothes worn by Male and Female are different.
  Male Wear                                      T-Shirt                            Trouser                    Formal Shirt                 Kurta pyjama   Female Wear                                                          Saree                         Salwar Kameez                                                              Frock                     Tunic   We wear school uniform when we go to school. People in different parts of the word dress differently.                                          American people             Men?s dress in Arab Country                     Muslim female       

                                                                                              Air and Water   Air Air living things need air to breathe. Air is a mixture of gases. We nither see it nor can touch it. But we can feel it's presence. Fish breathe through its gills. Air fills space and has weight. Air makes the life possible on earth. Not only have human beings, even plants and animals also need air to survive.   Wind Moving air is called wind. It can moves things.                      Windmill                                           Sailboat   Air helps in burning A Candle is lit with a matchstick The burning candle is covered with a glass jar air inside the glass jar The candle is put out as there is no   Water All living things need water to live. Water comes from rain. Rain water fills rivers, lakes and ponds. Water is needed for many things                                  Water to drink                            Water for plant                     Water for animal                                     Washing                      Cooking                         Putting out fire    Bathing   Seas and oceans are the big water bodies. But we cannot use this water for drink because water of seas and oceans are very salty.   Storage of Water Water can be stored in many ways.                                  Dam                                             Well                                  Bucket                                      Tank

                                                                            Weather   Weather Some days are hot, while some day are cold. On some days it rains, while on some days it is dry and windy. This is how weather keeps changing from day to day. Look at the following pictures.   Hot and Sunny Days Some days of the year are very hot. The sun shines brightly. We wear light cotton clothes to keep our bodies cool during this time of the year.   Cold Days Some days of the year are very cold. It snows at some places when it is very cold, wear warm woollen clothes to keep our bodies warm during this time of the year.   Windy Days On some days, the wind blows very fast. A strong wind can blow away things to far off places.   Rainy Days On some days, it rains heavily. We need to wear raincoats or carry umbrellas to protect ourselves from the rain.   Seasons We have five different seasons depending on the weather:
  • Spring-pleasant weather, flowers bloom
  • Summer-hot
  • Monsoon-rainy
  • Autumn-trees shed leaves
  • Winter-cold

                                                               The Sun, Moon and Stars   The Sun If you see the sky during the day, you will see some clouds and the sun. The sun looks like a yellow, hot ball of fire. It is very big. It shines brightly during the day. It gives us heat and light. All plants and animals need the warmth of the sun to live. The sun rises every morning in the east. It brings us the day. The sun set every evening in the west It bring us the night   The Moon If you see the sky at night, you will see the moon and lots of starts. The moon looks like a big white ball. Sometimes, you can see the moon even during the day. If you observe the sky every day, you will notice that the shape of the moon change every night. Sometimes it is round like a ball. At other times, you can see parts of the moon or no moon at all. Stars In the night sky we see lots and lots of stars. They shine brightly. Stars are very big in size, but they look tiny, because they are very, very far away from us. If you see the stars carefully, you will notice that they make patterns in the sky.            Days of A Week A new day begins when the sun rises in the sky. It ends when the sun sets and brings us the night. A group of seven days and nights makes a week. Each day of the week has a name.  
  • Sunday                             
  • Monday
  • Tuesday                           
  • Wednesday
  • Thursday                        
  • Friday
  • Saturday

                                                                    My Family and Relatives   We all live in a house with our father, mother, brother and sister. Our parents, brother and sister make our family.    A small family in which mother and father live with their children is known as a nuclear family. Again, in some families not only parents and children, but also their uncle, aunt, their children along with grand parents live together. Such family is called a joint family. All the members of a family generally have common surname. Brother of our father is Known as paternal uncle. Brother of our mother is known as maternal uncle. Our uncle's children are our cousins. Our family is our first teacher. A chart is given herewith to give you an idea of a family tree:     A family has important role in the area in which it stays and other families depend on it. These families, when taken together, form a society. Some families follow certain practices which may not be followed by other families. Such practices are called customs of the family. Our family and relatives are the important part of our life They help us in our physical and mental development.

                                                                                Back and Forth Counting   Back Counting Look at the following figures:                           Back Counting   Reverse Counting Reverse counting is back counting or counting backward. The reverse counting goes as given below: Look at the following figures:                  Reverse Counting                      Reverse Counting     Forth Counting Look at the following figures:                Forth Counting     What Comes before In forth counting, smaller number always comes before greater number.  
    • Example:
                           Forth Counting   Here, 3 comes just before 4 & 4 comes just before 5 In forth counting Numbers coming before 5 are 1, 2 , 3 , 4 Numbers coming before 4 are 1, 2 , 3     What Comes After Just remember that greater number always comes after smaller number in forth counting.  
    • Example:
                           Forth Counting   Here, 9 comes just after 8 10 comes just after 9 In forth counting, Numbers coming after 8 are 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 Numbers coming after 9 are 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

                                                                                           Ones, Tens and Hundreds   Concept of Ones and Tens Ones, tens and hundreds are the places of digits in a number.   Identifying such Number In any number, first number from right is called ones; Second number from right is called tens; And third digit from the right is called hundreds. Identifying ones in a number.   In 35 first digit from right is 5. Thus the digit at one's place is 5. It is also said that 35 has 5 ones.  
    • Example:
    18 has 8 ones because in 18, first digit from right is 8.   Identifying Tens in a Number Here 21 is a number. In 21, 2 is at tens place. Second digit from right is the digit at tens place.  
    • Example:
    In 43 the 2nd digit from right is 4 and hence, it is the digit at tens place. In this case it is also said 43 has 4 tens.  
    • Example:
    In 34, the 2nd digit from right is 4 and hence it is at tens place.   Identifying Hundreds in a Number In 120, the third digit from right is 'I'. Therefore, one is at hundreds place.  
    • Example:
    In 500, 5 is at the hundreds place.  
    • Example
    In 755, 7 is at the hundreds place.  

                                                                                                             Addition   Concept of Addition Addition means collection of different units together and counting them as single
    • Example:
      There are three balls in box A  A Three balls      There are one ball in another box B   B     One ball   Now, How many balls are there in both the boxes together? For this, we put the balls from both the boxes in a single box as shown below:   Four balls   Therefore, the third box has three balls of box A and one ball of box B. Together there are 4 balls.   Addition of Two Numbers It is the grouping of two numbers together and counting them as a single number.  
    • Example:
                   2 + 3 = 5   It is also written as: Trick: Put two vertical lines for 2 and three vertical lines for 3. After this, count all the lines together and that line will be the final result of this addition. 2 + 3  = 5    
    Point to Remember   1st number+ 2nd number=2nd number + 1st number
    • Example:
                +         =  Addition in Column   Addition in column is done by adding the numbers in column. See the example given below:  
    • Example:
        Word Problem Based on Addition\ In word problem some statements are given. These statements are to be solved by means of addition  
    • Example:
    Steve has 12 toffees. His father gives him 10 more toffees. How many toffees does Steve have now? (a) 2 toffees                                (b) 10 toffees (c) 12 toffees                              (d) 22 toffees (e) None of these Answer (d)   Explanation: Option (d) is correct because: 12 + 10 = 22  toffees.

                                                                                                        Subtraction   Subtraction Subtraction means taking out something from some bigger unit and finding the outcome as left over.   Subtraction of Two Numbers It is the process of taking away smaller number from the greater one.
    • Example:
               5 - 3 = 2        Subtraction of Figures 5 hours - 2 hours=3 hours Trick:                Subtraction of Images It means taking out picture or pictures from the group of pictures and finding the remaining as the result of the subtraction.  
    • Example:
      Subtraction in Column Subtraction in column is done by subtracting the numbers in column. See the examples given below:
    • Example:
        Word Problems Based on Subtraction Like addition, word problems on subtraction are basically the statements, which require solution by means of subtraction only.  
    • Example:
    James purchased 18 balloons on his birthday and gave 1 balloon to each of his friends. He has 7 friends. How many balloons are left with him? (a) 11 balloons               (b) 10 balloons (c) 12 balloons                (d) All the above (e) None of these Answer (a)   Explanation: Option (a) is correct because: 18 - 7 = 11  balloons.   Problems Based on Addition and Subtraction Both In some questions you have to perform both addition and subtraction. See the examples given below:  
    • Example:
      Solve the sum given below: 5 + 7 + 8 - 9   To solve this sum, first add the numbers with + sign. That is 5 + 7 + 8 = 20 Now subtract 9 from 20. That is 20-9=11. So the answer is 11.

                                                                                            Time and Calendar   Concept of Time A day is divided into hours. An hour is divided into minutes and a minute is divided into seconds. See the following examples: For example, Leesa reaches school on 8 O'clock every day. Here 8 O'clock is the time   Hours, Minutes and Seconds Hours, minutes and seconds are units for the measurement of time. For example, we can say 2 hours; 2 minutes; 2 seconds.   Now just remember: 24 hours  = 1 day 1 hour = 60 minutes 1 minute = 60 seconds Hence 1 day = 24 hours   Knowing Time Knowing time means knowing period or duration of a certain event. For example, A man goes to a certain distance in 60 minutes. We can therefore say that he takes 1 hour to cover the certain distance.   Time Indicating Watches Let's see the face of a clock given below:                            CLOCK   Look carefully at the clock given. It has two hands. One is the shorter hand, which is called hour hand. The other is the longer hand, which is called minute hand.   Important Points
    • The hour hand moves from one number to the next in 1 hour.
    • The hour hand takes two complete rounds in a day.
    • The minute hand takes 1 hour to complete one round.
      Reading Time from a Clock Trick 1 When the minute hand is at 12 then the actual time is the number that is indicated by the shorter or hour hand. For example, just see the following: Example:   Here the longer or the minute hand is at 12 and hour or shorter hand indicates 9. Therefore, the time is 9 or 9 0 ' clock. Similarly, in the clock shown below. The time is 4 or 4 O'clock.     Trick 2 Counting of the movements of minute hand at each of the number starting from 1 to 12 is done in the unit of 5, as given below: 5, 10 , 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60   If shorter or hour hand is somewhere between 2 and 1 and minute hand is at 5 then the time is 2 : 25 and it will be read as ‘25’ minutes past 2.  
    • Example:
          The above clock shows the time ten past five that is 10:05.   Calendar A calendar is a system of organising various periods of time. This is done by giving names to the periods as days, weeks, months and year. Week   A period of seven days is called a week. In other words there are seven days in a week. They more...

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