# Current Affairs 1st Class

#### Time and Calendar

TIME AND CALENDAR   1.    Concept of Time A day is divided into hours. An hour is divided into minutes and a minute is divided into seconds. See the following examples: For example, Leesa reaches school on 8 O'clock everyday. Here 8 O'clock is the time.   Hours, Minutes and Seconds Hours, minutes and seconds are units for the measurement of time. For example, we can say [2] hours; [2] minutes; [2] seconds.   Now just remember: [24] hours = [1] day          [1] hour= [60] minutes [1] minute = [60] seconds Hence [1] day = [24] hours   Knowing Time Knowing time means knowing period or duration of a certain event. For example, A man goes to a certain distance in [60] minutes. We can therefore say that he takes [1] hour to cover the certain distance.
•            Example:
Jenifer takes one minute to eat a bread, while Steve takes 4 minutes to eat a bread. Which one is true for both of them? (a) Jenifer takes more time           (b) Steve takes less time (c) Jenifer and Steve take equal time (d) Jenifer takes less time and Steve takes more time (e) None of these Answer (d) Explanation: Option (d) is correct because [4] minutes taken by Steve is more than [1] minute that is taken by Jenifer.   Time Indicating Watches Let's see the face of a clock given below: Look carefully at the clock given. It has two hands. One is the shorter hand, which is called hour hand. The other is the longer hand, which is called minute hand.   Important Points ·         The hour hand moves from one number to the next in [1] hour. ·         The hour hand takes two complete rounds in a day. ·         The minute hand takes [1] hour to complete one round.   Reading Time From a Clock Trick 1 more...

#### Money

MONEY   Concept of Money We all are familiar with Money. In India or anywhere in the world money is available in the form of coins and notes. We pay money while purchasing any things and receive money by selling goods. Money in India is counted in terms of paise and rupees.   Rupee and Paise   Let's remember the following:   100 paise =     50 paise =   25 paise = 20 paise =   10 paise = 5 paise =     Identifying Coins All coins are made up of metal. In India, at present coins of 50 paise, Rs.  1, Rs. 2, Rs. 5 and Rs. 10 are in circulation.
•            Example:
Just see the 50 paise and Rs. 2 coins given below:   From the pictures given above, it is clear that the denominations of coins are written on them. When we see a coin, we find the denomination given on it. It helps us to understand the value of the coin easily. Identifying Notes The information that is required to identify the rupees are written on a paper and is called 'Note'. In India, Rs. 5, Rs. 10, Rs. 20, Rs. Rs. 50, Rs. 100, Rs. 500 and Rs. 1000 notes are in circulation.
•          Example:
Look at the Rs.10 and Rs. 20 notes given herewith:        .Adding Cost of Things                                                            This is the grouping of the costs of two or more things and converting them into single money value. For example,                                   If cost of one apple $=Rs.\,\,[\,2\,]$ and cost of one banana$=Rs.\,\,[\,4\,]$ and cost of one orange $=Rs.\,\,[\,6\,]$ The total cost of all the three fruits, therefore, is: cost of one apple + cost of one banana + cost of one orange $=Rs.\,\,[\,2\,]+Rs.\text{ }\!\![\!\!\text{ }\,\text{4}\,\text{ }\!\!]\!\!\text{ }+Rs.\text{ }\!\![\!\!\text{ }\,\text{8}\,\text{ }\!\!]\!\!\text{ }.$   more...

#### Measurement

MEASUREMENT   Measurement                              Measurement means determining the size, length, distance, height etc. of objects, place etc. The kilometre, metre, centimetre, inches and foot are the units of distance and length. While kilometre and metre are used for long and average distances, and length, centimetre, inches and foot are used to measure short distances.   What is Length and Breadth?                                          Length is the longer dimension of an object, while breadth is the dimension from side to side. Let's see the picture given below:                                             Look at the following: [1] kilometer = [1000] meters [1] meter = [100] centimeters.   Therefore, [2] meters = two [100] centimeters [3] meters = three [100] centimeters and the process goes. on.   Again, [1] foot = [12] inches.   Therefore, [2] feet = two [12] inches = [24] inches. [3] feet = three [12] inches = [36] inches.   Points to remember, Short forms Kilometre = [km], Metre = [m], Centimetre = [cm]
•          Example:
How many kilometres are there in one 1000 metres? (a) 4                                                                  (b) 1 (c) 3                                                                  (d) 5 (e) None of these Answer (b) Explanation: (b) is correct because [1] km = one [1000] metres.   Note: [km] > [m] > [cm] $Foot>Inch>Cm$

#### Geometrical Shapes

GEOMETRICAL SHAPES   Geometrical Shapes In this chapter, we will know about the basic geometrical shapes, which we often see around us.   Line A line is a collection of points. The lines may be straight or curved. See the picture of lines given below: 1. Straight lines   2. Curved lines   Angles When two lines meet at a point, an angle is formed. See the following figures: (i)                        (ii) These are angles.
•          Example:
Which one of the following is not an angle? (a)                                                   (b) (c)                                                      (d) (e)   None of these Answer (d) Explanation: Option (d) is correct because in (d), two lines do not meet to make an angle.
•          Example:
Which one of the following options has two angles? (a)                                                  (b) (c)                                                 (d)   Answer (a) Explanation: Option (a) is correct because it has three lines meeting at two points making 2 angles.   Triangle A triangle has three sides and three angles. Let's see the following figures:   Quadrilateral Quadrilateral has four sides and four angles. Let's see the following figures: Thus it is clear that a quadrilateral has four sides whether they are equal or not.   Rectangle A rectangle has equal angles and equal opposite sides. Let's see the following rectangles: Square Square more...

#### Applied Mathematics

APPLIED MATHEMATICS   In this chapter, we will apply our mathematical knowledge to solve various problems. Some of these problems, along with their solutions are given below.
•          Example:
How many circles are there in the figure? (a) 10                                                                (b) 12           (c) 13                                                                (d) 14 (e) None of these Answer (a) Explanation: Clearly in the figure, number of circles are $\text{ }\!\!|\!\!\text{ }\,\,\text{ }\!\!|\!\!\text{ }\,\,\text{ }\!\!|\!\!\text{ }\,\,|\,\,|\,\,\text{ }\!\!|\!\!\text{ }\,\,\text{ }\!\!|\!\!\text{ }\,\,\text{ }\!\!|\!\!\text{ }\,\,|\,\,|\,=10$ So, correct option is (a).
•          Example:
Fill in the blanks with correct symbol. (a) <                                                                 (b) >            (c) =                                                                 (d) All the above (e) None of these Answer (a) Explanation: Clearly left figure is smaller than the right figure. So, correct option is (a).
•          Example:
Solve the following and choose the correct option. (a)                                                              (b) (c)                                                   (d) (e) None of these Answer (b) Explanation: Here, 4 number of roses are removed from 6 number of roses. So, remaining roses are$6-4=2$. Hence option (b) is the answer.
•          Example:
Arrange the numbers given in the following circle in ascending order. (a) 22, 32, 29, 35, 36                                                      (b) 29, 32, 22, 35, 36 (c) 36, 35, 32, 29, 22                                         (d) 22, 29, 32, 35, 36 (e) None of these Answer (d) Explanation: In ascending order, we arrange the numbers in their increasing order. So, the order is 22, 29, 32, 35, 36. Hence more...

#### Introduction to Computer

Introduction to Computer   Introduction A computer is a machine, which manipulates data according to a list of instructions. We use computers for so many things, like playing video games, solving mathematical problems, drawing pictures, watching movies, listening to music, using internet e-mailing, etc.   The device by which we type the letters, give commands to the computer is an input device called CPU (Central Processing Unit). A part of a computer performs its internal task and computers display information through output devices. Therefore, a computer has three basic parts, Input, CPU and Output.   Few important features of a computer are:   v  It is a machine. v  It works on electricity. v  It makes our work easier. v  It is very fast as compared to human beings. v  It is very accurate, it never make mistakes. v  It never gets tired. v  It has in-built memory where it can store a large number of data.     Drawbacks of a Computer   v  Computer has no feelings. v  It cannot work on its own. It needs a person to work on it and to give instructions to it   What is a Machine?   v  A machine is a tool which makes our work easier. v  It saves our time and energy. v  Machines work faster than human beings.   Example of Machines are: A television set is used for entertainment. An iron is used to iron clothes.    A car is used to for travelling.     A mobile is used for making phone calls.   Things to Remember v  Machines work faster than human beings and are made by man. v  Computer is a machine. v  It is used to play games, to draw pictures, for calculation and also to play game? v  A computer has three basic part, input, CPU and output. Answer Me   1.            Tick ( √ ) the machines.         2. more...

#### Main Parts of Computer

Main Parts of Computer   Introduction Like we human beings have our body parts to do different task, a computer also has parts to perform different tasks.   There are four main parts of a computer. They are:   1. Monitor 2. Mouse 3. CPU 4. Keyboard Monitor   v  A monitor looks like a TV Screen. v  It displays pictures, text, movies etc on screen. v  It is also called Visual Display Unit (VDU). v  It displays information generated by computer. Mouse v  Mouse of a computer is a pointing device which looks like a real mouse. v  It has .two click buttons and one scroll wheel. v  The movement of the cursor on the screen depends on the direction of rolling the mouse on the mouse pad. v  An arrow-like figure that appears .on the monitor is called a mouse pointer.       CPU   v  CPU stands for Central Processing Unit. v  It is the main unit of a computer for processing data. v   It is also known as brain of computer. v  CPU controls all the activities of computer. v  CPU contains power ON button, disk drives, powers slot and many connectors.     Keyboard   v  Keyboard is used for data input. v  It looks like a typewriter. v  It has many keys including, 26 Alphabet keys, 9 numeric keys, 12 function keys, arrow keys, special keys, and so on. v  It is used to type alphabets, numbers and symbols.         Some Additional parts of a computer   Printer A printer is used for printing text and pictures from a computer on to paper.       Scanner A scanner scans or copies documents (text or pictures) and converts them into digital data.     Speaker Speakers help us to hear sound that comes from a computer.     Things to Remember   more...

#### Computer Components

Computer Components   Introduction Computer components are the devices which help computer to work properly. Computer Devices can be classified into following four parts:
• Input Devices
• 2. Storage Devices 3. Processor 4. Output Devices       Input Devices Input devices allow the user to enter information into the system. Some input devices are: Mouse Mouse is a pointing device. It has two click buttons and one scroll wheel. It is used to manipulate object on a computer screen.       Keyboard Keyboard is a set of keys that enables you to enter data into a computer.     Joystick Joystick is a control device that enables a user to move an object on the screen and is mainly used for playing video games.       Light Pen It is a hand held light sensitive input device used for drawing on the computer screen.     Barcode Reader Barcode reader is an input device used for scanning the information printed on the product in the form of barcode.       Web camera A webcam is a video camera that captures image in real time through a computer network.     Microphone Microphone is used to record your voice into the computer.       Touch screen Touch screen allows the user to interact with a computer by using their fingers.       Storage devices A storage device is used for storing information. It can hold information both temporarily and permanently.     Some Storage devices are:     Processing Device CPU is the main unit of a computer for the data processing. It is also known as the brain of computer system that carries out the processing of the given data and provides the output.       Output Devices An output device is any device used to send data from a computer to another device. Some output devices are Monitor Monitor is used to display the result processed by the computer. Monitors are classified into 3 types.
• Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
•     2. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)                            3. Light Emitting (LED)    more...

#### How to Operate a Computer

How to Operate a Computer   Introduction Computer is an electronic device. It requires electricity to work, therefore, it should be connected to an electric plug. The computer should be properly switched ON and OFF, otherwise, the sensitive components of a computer may get damaged. Let us learn the correct -way to start and shut down a computer.   Switching on the computer The following is the correct procedure in order to switch ON the computer.                  1.               Switch ON the main power switch.                    2.               Press the ON button on the UPS of the computer.                    3.               Press the ON button on the CPU of the computer.                   4.                Switch ON the Monitor.                     5.              After some time, the following screen will appear on the monitor. This screen is called the desktop.                      6.              Desktop is the first screen that you see on the computer when Windows has loaded.       Now, the computer is ready to work, we can start our work by clicking on the start menu which contains all programs stored in the computer. Switching off the computer After finishing your work, you must SHUT DOWN the computer. To shut down the computer the following steps should be followed:                     1.            Click Windows button.                        2.            When the Start menu appears, click on power option.                      3.            Select the shutdown option from the power option list.                     4.            If monitor is connected through external power plug then Switch it OFF, otherwise, it will automatically shut down after executing the shutdown  command. more...

#### What Can Computer Do?

What Can Computer Do?   Introduction Computer is a machine which can perform many functions to simplify the work of human beings. The use of computer in many fields is increasing continuously.   Uses of a computer                     1.            It can help you in drawing and painting.                         2.            A computer can play music.                         3.            A computer helps you to type a document.                         4.            A computer helps you to use the internet,                          5.            You can play games using computer.                          6.            Computer can be used to send e-mail.                           7.            Computer helps you to watch movies.       Places where computers are in use Computer is a useful machine in our life. Let us known the various places where computers are used.   In School Teacher uses computer to educate and it allows the students to learn modern tools and technologies.       In Banks Bank uses computer to store list of people and their accounts.       In Hospitals Computers are used in hospitals to keep patients records, medical information land to perform various medical examination.       In Offices Computer is an essential part of office management. Almost all offices use computer for common purpose such as sending e-mail and document creation.     At Railway Station and Airport Computers are used to book tickets, to keep track of information such as the number of seats available and present status of a ticket etc. They are also used for maintaining status of flights and trains.       In the Mall Computers are used in malls to keep a track of product inventory and also in billing and accounting section.   more...

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