NumbersSingular NumberThe noun which describes "only one" person or a thing is called singular number For example: mango, queen, bulb, etc,Plural NumberThe noun which describes "more than one" person or tiling is called plural number. For example: mangoes, queens, bulbs. Some examples of singular and plural are given below: more...
Formation of Short and Simple SentencesA sentence is a group of words. A sentence is meaningful. it starts with a, capital letter. It ends with a full stop (.) or a question mark (?).
Example 1
Boy down the fell. This is a group of words but this sentence does not have a meaning. The boy fell down. This is a group of 'words. This sentence has a meaning.
BACK AND FORTH COUNTINGBack and Forth CountingUnderstanding and applying basic mathematics is an essential skill set for a student to learn. In this chapter you will know about the back and forth counting.Forth CountingLook at the following figures:In forth counting, we count from smaller to greater numbers.
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Back Counting Look at the following figures:In .back counting we count from greater to smaller numbers.Reverse CountingReverse counting is back counting or counting backward. The reverse counting goes as given below:What Comes beforeIn forth counting, smaller number always comes before greater number.Example:Here,\[[\,3\,]\] comes just before \[[\,4\,]\] &
\[[\,4\,]\] comes just before \[[\,5\,]\]In forth countingNumbers coming before \[[\,5\,]\]are \[[1]\,\,[2]\,\,[3]\,\,[4]\].
Numbers coming before \[[\,4\,]\]are \[[\,1\,]\,\,[\,2\,]\,\,[3\,]\].
Example:
Here,
\[[\,6\,]\] comes just before \[[\,5\,]\]
\[[\,5\,]\] comes just before \[[\,4\,]\]In Back Counting,Numbers coming before \[[\,0\,]\]are \[[\,1\,]\,\,[\,2\,]\,\,[\,3\,]\,\,[\,4\,]\,\,[\,5\,]\,\,[\,6\,]\]Numbers coming before \[[\,1\,]\] are \[[\,2\,]\,\,[\,3\,]\,\,[\,4\,]\,\,[\,5\,]\]What Comes AfterJust remember that greater number always comes after smaller number in forth counting.
Example:
Here,
\[[\,9\,]\] comes just after \[[\,8\,]\]
\[[\,10\,]\] comes just after \[[\,9\,]\]In forth counting,Numbers coming after \[[\,8\,]\] are \[[\,9\,]\,\,\,[\,10\,]\,\,\,[\,11\,]\,\,\,[\,12\,]\,\,\,[\,13\,]\,\,\,[\,14\,]\]Numbers coming after \[[\,9\,]\] are \[[\,10\,]\,\,\,[\,11\,]\,\,\,[\,12\,]\,\,\,[\,13\,]\,\,\,[\,14\,]\]
Example:
Here, \[[\,27\,]\]comes just after \[[\,28\,]\]
\[[\,28\,]\] more...
ONE, TENS & HUNDREDSConcept of Ones and TensOnes, tens and hundreds are the places of digits in a number.Identifying Ones in a NumberIn any number, first number from right is called ones;Second number from right is called tens;And third digit from the right is called hundreds.
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In 35 first digit from right is 5. Thus the digit at one's place is 5. It is also said that 35 has 5 ones.
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18 has 8 ones because in 18, first digit from right is 8. Identifying Tens in a NumberHere 21 is a number. In 21, 2 is at tens place. Second digit from right is the digit at tens place.
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In 43 the 2nd digit from right is 4 and hence, it is the digit at tens place. In this case it is also said 43 has 4 tens.
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34, the 2nd digit from right is 3 and hence it is at tens place.Identifying Hundreds in a NumberIn 120, the third digit from right is 'V. Therefore, one is at hundreds place.
ADDITIONConcept of AdditionAddition means collection of different units together and counting them as single unit.Let's understand this through an example:
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There are three balls in box A There are two balls in another box B Now,How many balls are there in both the boxes together?For this, we put the balls from both the boxes in a single box as shown below:Therefore, the third box has three balls of box A and one ball of box B. Together there are 4 balls.Addition of Two NumbersIt is the grouping of two numbers together and counting them as a single number.
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It is also written as: Trick:Put two vertical lines for 2 and three vertical lines for 3. After this, count all the lines together and that line will be the final result of this addition.Addition of Three NumbersIt is the grouping of three numbers and counting them as a single unit.
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It is also written asHere, also apply the same method of putting vertical lines.Trick:Follow the vertical line trick, to check it.Addition of FiguresLet's consider about 2, 4, 11, 18, etc. In fact these are simply numbers.But, when we sayThen the numbers represent a figure. Therefore, it is clear that when numbers come in the form of representing something, they become a figure.Now, we add figures with more...
SUBTRACTIONSubtractionSubtraction means taking out something from some bigger unit and finding the outcome as left over.Subtraction of Two NumbersIt is the process of taking away smaller number from the greater one.
Example:
Subtraction of Three NumbersLet's see the example given below:
Example:
Here, we have to subtract two numbers [2] and [1] because both numbers have '__' sign. Now,Step 1: Add the numbers with ?__? sign.Step 2: Do subtraction as subtraction of two numbers.Thus,Subtraction of FiguresNumbers and , etc.Figures = 2 rupees, 3 books, 1 kg, 6 hours, etc.Now, how to subtract figures?In fact, we subtract figures with simple method of subtraction we have learned so far.
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Trick: Subtraction of ImagesIt means taking out picture or pictures from the group of pictures and finding the remaining as the result of the subtraction.
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Subtraction in ColumnSubtraction in column is done by subtracting the numbers in column. See the examples given below:
COMPARISONComparison of NumbersComparison enables us to identify what is greater or smaller between two objects and what is greatest and smallest among more than two objects.Greater NumberIn greater number, we identify which number is the bigger in comparison to the given numbers.Let us see the examples given below:
Example:
\[[\,3\,]>[\,2\,]\]It means that \[[\,3\,]\]is greater than\[[\,2\,]\], \['>'\] is the sign of 'greater than' or ?bigger than? or 'more than'.
\[[\,3\,]>[\,2\,]\] is read as \[[\,3\,]\]is greater than \[[\,2\,]\]Smaller NumbersIn smaller number, we have to identify which number is smaller or less than in comparison to the given numbers.See the following examples:
Example:
\[[\,2\,]<[\,3\,]\]It means\[[\,2\,]\]is less than 3'<' is the sign of 'less than' or "smaller than'.Hence, \[[\,2\,]<[\,3\,]\] is read as 2 is smaller than 3.Equal NumbersEqual means neither greater than nor less than.
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Let's consider
\[[\,1\,]\] and \[[\,01\,]\]These numbers are equal because if one or more zeroes is put before any number, the number remains unchanged. Thus \[[\,1\,]\] and \[[\,01\,]\]can be written as:\[[\,1\,]=[\,01\,]\,\,or\,\,[\,01\,]=[\,1\,]\]Where\['='\] is the sign of equal.And \[[\,1\,]=[\,01\,]\]is read as\[[\,1\,]\] is equal to\[[\,01\,]\]Comparison of ImagesThe comparison of images means comparing the sizes or numbers of the pictures given. In other words, if a particular picture is bigger or smaller or equal in comparison to the other pictures given. It also means comparing the numbers of pictures between groups.Size ComparisonLet's understand it through an example:
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In the above mentioned pictures (a) is smaller and (b) is bigger. Therefore, (a) is smaller in comparison to (b).Number ComparisonJust see the two groups of pictures more...