Current Affairs 1st Class

                                                                                                      Measurement   Measurement Measurement means determining the size, length, distance, height etc. of objects, place etc. The kilometer, metre, centimeter, inches and foot are the units of distance and length. While kilometer and metre are used for long and average distances, and length, centimeter, inches and foot are used to measure short distances.   What is Length and Breadth? Length is the longer dimension of an object, while breadth is the dimension from side to side. Let's see the picture given below:         Look at the following:   1 kilometre = 1000 metres. 1 metre = 100 centimetres.   Therefore,   2 metre = two 100 centimetres 3 metres = three 100 centimetres and the process goes on.   Again,   1 foot = 12 inches.   Therefore,   2 foot= two 12 inches = 24 inches. 3 foot = three 12 inches = 36 inches.   Points to remember, Short forms, Kilometre = km. Metre = m, Centimetre = cm  
  • Example:
How many kilometres are there in one 1000 metres? (a) 4                                          (b) 1 (c) 3                                          (d) 5 (e) None of these Answer (b)   Explanation: (b) is correct because 1 km = one  1000 metres.   Note km > m > cm Foot> Inches>Cm

                                                                                Geometrical Shapes   Geometrical Shapes  In this chapter, we will know about the basic geometrical shapes, which we often see around us.   Line A line is a collection of points. The lines may be straight or curved. See the picture of lines given below:
  • Straight lines
  • Curved lines
  •   Angles When two lines meet at a point, an angle is formed. See the following figures:                                                (i)                    (ii)   These are angles.
    • Example:
      Which one of the following is not an angle? (a)                       (b) (c)                      (d)  (e)   None of these Answer (d) Explanation: Option (d) is correct because in (d), two lines do not meet to make an angle.   Triangle A triangle has three sides and three angles. Let's see the following figures:     Quadrilateral Quadrilateral has four sides and four angles. Let's see the following figures:   Thus it is clear that a quadrilateral has four sides whether they are equal or not.   Rectangle A rectangle has equal angles and equal opposite sides. Let's see the following rectangles:     Square Square has 4 equal sides and 4 angles. Let's see the squares given below:   Rhombus Rhombus is a quadrilateral in which all four sides are equal. Let's see the pictures of rhombus given below.    
    • Example:
      How many lines are required to make 2 square? (a) 4                                          (b) 8 (c) 12                                        (d) 3 (e) None of these                           Answer (b)                           Explanation: Option (b) is correct because one square has 4 lines. So 4 + 4 = 8 lines are required to make 2 squares.

                                                                                                         Comparison   Comparison of Numbers Comparison enables us to identify what is greater or smaller between two objects and what is greatest and smallest among more than two objects.   Greater Number In greater number, we identify which number is the bigger in comparison to then numbers. Let us see the examples given below:  
    • Example:
    \[>\] It means that \[\] is greater than \[\], ‘>’ is the sign of 'greater than' or "bigger than' or ‘more than'. \[>\] is read as \[\] is greater than \[\]   Smaller Numbers In smaller number, we have to identify which number is smaller or less than in comparison to the given numbers. See the following examples:  
    • Example:
    It means  is less than 3 '<" is the sign of "less than' or "smaller than". Hence,  is read as 2 is smaller than 3.   Equal Numbers Equal means neither greater than nor less than.  
    • Example:
    Let's consider  and These numbers are equal because if one or more zeroes is put before any number the number remains unchanged. Thus  and  can be written as:  =  or  = Where '=.' is the sign of equal. And  =  is read as  is equal to     Comparison of Images The comparison of images means comparing the sizes or numbers of the pictures given. In other words, if a particular picture is bigger or smaller or equal in comparison to the other pictures given. It also means comparing the numbers of pictures between groups.   Size Comparison Let's understand it through an example:
    • Example:
    A           B In the above mentioned pictures (A) is smaller and (B) is bigger. Therefore, (A) is 3-aiiler in comparison to (B).   Number Comparison Just see the two groups of pictures given below:
    • Example:
                  Group A                      Group B             Here group A has four keys and group B has two keys. Therefore, group A is greater than group B.   Ascending and Descending Order Numbers can be arranged in ascending or descending order. In other words more...

                                                             Means of Transport   There are different means of transport. These are air, water and land transport which includes rail, road and off-road transport. In general, transportation is used for the movement of people, animals, and other things.   Air Transport Air transport is the fastest means of transport.   Land Transport Land transport covers all land-based transportation system that provide for the movement of people, goods and services.   Rail Rail transport is the cheapest and convenience means of transport for passengers and goods.   Road Transport It includes motorcars, motorcycles, buses, trucks, bicycles and pedestrians.   Water Transport Water transport is the process of transport that a watercraft, such as a barge, boat, ship or sailboat, makes over a body of water, such as a sea, ocean.  

    •                       A plant is a living thing. They need air, water and sunlight to grow.
    •                        Plans include all types of big and small trees. Including grasses, shrubs and herbs.
    •                       Big trees have long branches, Large in size e.g. banyan tree. peepal tree, neem tree etc.
    •                    Herbs are small plants. It has a soft stem and live for a few months. They are used for flavor, scent and as medicine e.g. mint, grass, wheat, muleti.
    •                    Shrubs or bushes are small plants which have woody stem. They are smaller than trees. They live for many years. E.g. rose plant, hibiscus etc.
    •                    Creepers are plants that grow along the soil surface and spread over a long distance. e. g. muskmelon plant, watermelon plant, pumpkin plant.  
    •                   Climber plants have very soft stem and take support of another plant to climb. They cannot stand straight e.g. beans plant, jasmine plant, grapevine, money plant, pea plant,
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    •                      There are many kinds of animals around us. Some are big. Some are small. Some of them live in forests, some live with human beings, some fly in air, some swim in water etc.
    •                     Wild animals are animals that live in forests. They eat grass and flesh of other animals. Tiger is a wild animal which has been declared as the national animal of India by the Indian government. Some of the wild animals harm us and some of them do not.
    e.g., Lion, tiger, cheetahs, wolf, bear etc.
    •                     Domestic animals are the animals that have been tamed and kept by human beings as a work animal, food source or pet. Men keep them for milk, food, riding hunting, tilling the land and for many other useful services.
    e.g., cow, The cow is the most useful of all the domestic animals, It gives us milk. It is the principal food for babies and sick people.
    •                   Water Animals\[\to \] The animals which live in water are called water animals. They may be big or small. These animals are found in deep water bodies such as seas, ocean etc. Fishes live in water. They breath with help of gills e.g., shark whale, dolphin, crocodile, octopus etc.
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    Food we Eat     FUNDAMENTALS
    •                        All living beings need food gives us energy to do various work. Any nutrition
    Substance that people or animals eat or drink is called food. Food is the basic necessity of all of us.
    •                        Our body needs mainly following nutrients to remain healthy-
    •          Protein
    •         Carbohydrate
    •         Fats
    •         Vitamin
    •         Water
    •         Roughage
    Nutrient Functions
    (a) Protein more...
    •                        Clothing is one of our basic needs. Clothes protect us from heat, cold and rain. There are various kinds of clothes available for different climate conditions.
    (a) Cotton clothes (b) Woolen clothes (c) Waterproof clothes
    •                      Cotton clothes are very soft and comfortable. Cotton clothes protect us from heat of the Sun. It absorbs the sweat and help in keeping our body cool.
    •                      Cotton is a natural fiber. New born babies are also given cotton due to its softness. The various cotton dresses are frocks, T- shirt, salwar suits, shirts, trousers, socks, cap, saree etc.
    •                      Woolen clothes are made up of wool. These clothes keeps our body warm and protect us from cold in winter season. Wool is mainly obtained from sheep. The commonly used woolen clothes used woolen clothes are coat, Sweaters, woolen socks, caps, baby suits etc.
    •                       Raincoat and umbrellas are used in rainy season. They are made up of polymers and plastic. They save us from getting wet in the rainy reason.
    •                       Clothes are made from fibers. We obtain clothes from both plants and animals.
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    Air, Water and its Resources     FUNDAMENTALS
    •                        Air is present everywhere. It is mixture of different gases like nitrogen, oxygen, carbon - dioxide etc.
    •                        Living things need air to breathe.
    •                       Air cannot be seen with our naked eyes. Air has no colour, taste or smell.
    •                        Air occupies space. Air was weight, e.g. When football is filled with air it has weight, wheels of car, buses, cycles etc.
    •                       Air is necessary for life. Without air, life is not possible.
    •                      The moving air is called wind. When the winds blow gently, it is called breeze. Motion of air from sea to land is called sea breeze and land to sea is called land breeze. A breeze is very pleasant. All the living being enjoys the gentle wind.
    •                       When the wind blows strongly, it is called storm. A storm is very harmful. It can uproot trees, damage plants, break window panes and blow off the roof of huts. Storm are of different types - dust storm, snow storm, rainstorm etc.
    •                     Wind is used for many purposes such as to dry clothes, fly kites, fill hot air balloons, sail boat, run windmills, generate electricity etc.
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    •                      A mother, father and child or children makes a family. Father and mother are called parent of the child. A family lives together in a house. Family can be big or small.
    •                       The member of the family love and care for each other. The children obey and respect their elders.
    •                      A small family consists of parents and one or two children. A small is also called nuclear family. A small family is a happy family.
    •                       A big family consist of father, mother, one or two children (i.e. brother, sister) and grandparents. A big family has many people living in one house. This type of family is also called as joint family.
    •                       A joint family has a lot of people. Parents, children, grandfather, uncle?s aunts and cousin live together in a family.
    •                       A family plays an important role in the society. Each and every family has its own customs, which all the family members follow. Our family and relative are the important part of our life. They play a vital role in physical and mental development.
    •                      Neighborhood is a place near our houses.
    •                        more...

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