# Current Affairs 2nd Class

## Multiplication

Category : 2nd Class

Multiplication

Synopsis

Multiplication:

• Multiplication is the same as repeated addition, x is the symbol for multiplication.
• The number to be multiplied is called the MULTIPLICAND.
• The number by which we multiply is called the MULTIPLIER.
• The answer is called the PRODUCT.
 e.g.,           24       $\times$            3               =           72                    $\downarrow$                     $\downarrow$                           $\downarrow$             Multiplicand       Multiplier         Product

 Note:       The product of a number and zero is                                   zero.                    The product of a number and 1 is the                    number itself.                  Even if the order of the number to                              be multiplied is changed, the                        product remains the same.
1. Multiplication of a 1 - digit number by another 1 - digit number:

e.g.,    3 $\times$ 9 = 27

Multiply the numbers and write the product.

1. Multiplication of a 2 - digit number by 1 - digit number:

e.g., 1: Multiply 98 by 3.

First multiply ones and then multiply tens. Regroup the product if needed.

Step -1: Multiply 8 ones by 3.                                            ®

8 ones $\times$ 3 = 24 ones = 2 tens + 4 ones

Write 4 in the ones place,

Carry 2 tens to the tens place.

Step-2: Multiply 9 tens by 3.

9 tens $\times$ 3 = 27 tens

= 20 tens + 7 tens

= 2 hundreds + 7 tens

Add the carried 2 tens to 7 tens. So, 7 tens + 2 tens = 9 tens.

Write 9 in the tens place. Write 2 in hundreds place.

1. Multiplication of a 2 - digit number by another 2-digit number:

e.g., Multiply 36 by 25.

Step - 1: First multiply ones.

Write 0 in the ones place and carry 3 tens to the tens place.

Step - 2: Multiply the digit in tens place of the multiplicand by the ones digit of the multiplier. 3 $\times$ 5 = 15.

Now add the 3 carried from the product of ones to 15, which gives 15 + 3 = 18. Write 18 beside 0 in the product.

Step - 3: Now place a 0 below 0 in the product 180.

Multiply the digit 6 in ones place of the multiplicand by the digit 2 in tens place of multiplier.      6 $\times$ 2 = 12

Write 2 below 8 in the product and carry 1 ten to the tens place.

Step - 4: Multiply 3 in the tens place by 2 in the tens place of the multiplier. 3 $\times$ 2 = 6. Add the 1 carried from previous product to get 6 + 1 = 7.

Now, write 7 below 1 in 180.

Now add the products and write the sum which is the required product of the two given numbers.

$\therefore$ 36 $\times$ 25 = 900

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