# Current Affairs 4th Class

#### Classification

Classification   Classification means to arrange various things having similar properties in a group. In this topic, four words are given out of which three are almost having same properties but the fourth one is different. Some examples are given below:   1.            Which one the following is different from the rest three?                (a) Cobbler                      (b) Anvil                (c) Spade                           (d) Axe                (e) None of these Ans.  (a)   Anvil, spade and axe are the working tools of blacksmith, labourer and woodcutter, respectively. While cobbler is a worker not a working tool.   2.            Identify the odd one out:              (a) Carrot                        (b) September              (c) Tomato                      (d) Cucumber              (e) None of these Ans.  (b)   September is the name of a month while others are the names of vegetables.   3.            Identify the odd one out:            (a) Sachin Tendulkar         (b) Herschelle Gibbs            (c) Abhinav Bindra             (d) Ricky Pouting            (e) None of these Ans.  (c)   Abhinav Bindra is a shooter while the other three are cricketers.

#### Analogy

Analogy   Analogy is a comparison between two different things in order to highlight some point of similarity.   Let us look at some examples to understand analogy   1.                As "ice-cream" is sweet, "pizza" is______. (a) bitter                        (b) spicy       (c) sour                          (d) sw-eet (e.) None of these Ans.        (b) Pizza is spicy.   2.                As "lawyer" is related to court, "doctor" is related to ______. (a) hospital                     (b) patient      (c) nurse                        (d) medicine       (e) None of these Ans.        (a) Hospital is the working place of a doctor in the same way as court is the working place of a lawyer.   3.                As "sheep" is related to lamb, in the same way "deer" is related to which of the following? (a) Cub                          (b) Kitten      (c) Farrow                      (d) Faw-n (e) None of these Ans.        (d) Lamb is young one of sheep, so young one of deer is fawn.   4.                As "man" is related to house, in the same way "tiger" is related to ______. (a) palace                      (b) circus      (c) museum                    (d) den (e) None of these Ans.        (d) Tiger lives in den as man lives in house.

Answering General Questions   Questions frequently asked by teacher about general knowledge:   1.            Which is the highest mountain in the world?                Ans.     Sir, Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.   2.            Who is the former President of U.S.A.?               Ans.     Sir, Barack Obama is the former President of U.S.A.   3.            What is the capital of Russia?                Ans.     Sir, Moscow is the capital of Russia.   4.            Who was the first President of India?                Ans.     Sir, Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the first President of India.   5.            Mary Kom is associated with which sport?               Ans.     Sir, Mary Kom is associated with Boxing.   6.            Which country organised the FIFA World Cup 2014?                Ans.     Sir, the FIFA World Cup ^014 was organised by Brazil.   7.            Which team won the Cricket World Cup 2015?                Ans.     Sir, Australia won the Cricket World Cup 2015.   8.            Where is the headquarters of the United Nations?                Ans.     Sir, the headquarters of the United Nations is in New York.   9.            When do we celebrate X-mas day?                Ans.     Sir, X-mas day is celebrated on 25th December.   10.          Name the Indian scientist who was awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry in the year 2009?                 Ans.     Sir, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan was awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry in the year 2009.   11.          Name the cricketer who has scored 100 centuries in International Cricket?                 Ans.     Sir, Sachin Ramesh Tendulkar has scored 100 centuries in International Cricket.   12.          What is the distance between the Earth and the Moon?                 Ans.     Sir, the distance between the Earth and the Moon is 3,84,000 km.   13.          When is the Earth Day celebrated?                 Ans.     Sir, the Earth Day is Celebrated on more...

#### Vocabulary

Vocabulary   In this lesson, we will learn to define a word, that is, we will try to find out a single word for a group of words. For example: Alien: A non-resident of a country Citizen: A resident of a country Some more examples are given below to develop your understanding of this topic.   1.            One who can neither read nor write is called: (a) Illiterate                    (b) Illegal (c) Teacher                     (d) Egoist (e) None of these Ans.     (a)   2.            A person who makes a film is known as: (a) Director                     (b) Producer (c) Villain                           (d) Artist (e) None of these Ans.     (b)   3.            A lady who attends sick persons is known as: (a) Wife                           (b) Nurse (c) Teacher                     (d) Postman (e) None of these Ans.     (b)   Antonyms/Synonyms Synonyms Words having similar meanings are known as synonyms. For example:   Word                             Synonyms Liberty               :           Freedom, independence Marvel               :           Wonder, surprise, astonishment Naughty            :           Mischievous, wayward, disobedient Obvious             :           Manifest, clear Peak                     :           Top, apex, summit, pinnacle   Antonyms Words having opposite meanings are known as antonyms. For example:   Word                            Antonyms Go                         :           Come Grateful             :           Ungrateful Guilty                  :           Innocent Honesty             :           Dishonesty Here                     :           There

#### Jumbled Words and Sentences

Jumbled Words and Sentences Jumbled words Injumbled words, the letters are not arranged in a proper order. You need to arrange the letters in a proper order to form meaningful words. Example 1 Rearrange the letters to form meaningful words. 1.          IOLN     =  LION 2.          ORHSE =  HORSE 3.          SRTA    =  STAR 4.          VAEHY =  HEAVY 5.          NFA      =  FAN Jumbled Sentences In these type of sentences, you are provided with the first part of a sentence. The remaining parts of the sentence are arranged randomly labelled as P, Q, R and S. You are required to arrange these broken parts so as to form a meaningful sentence. Example 2 A: a policeman P: abide Q: if he has to do well R: by the strict letters of the law S: must (a) SPRQ                 (b) SQPR (c) RPSQ                 (d) RSQP (e) None of these Solution: Clearly, the correct sentence which would be formed is : "A policeman must abide by the strict letters of the law if he has to do well. So, the correct combination is SPRQ. Hence, the answer is (a).

#### Sentences

Sentences   A sentence is a group of words which conveys complete sense. There are two parts of a sentence:   1.   Subject                      2.   Predicate   We can further divide the subject and predicate in other parts:     Let us look at some examples to understand the subject. The main word is always noun and the adjective is the qualifier in the subject.   Identifying main word and qualifier   (a) The black                  goat was in the dark room.      Qualifier                   Main word                  (b) My elder                   brother is a clerk.      Qualifier                  Main word   Qualifier is always placed before the main word. To identify the predicate let us look at some examples:   (a) Tom named his house as pleasure house. (b) The teacher appointed Max as monitor. The complement is always noun or noun phrase.  Types of sentences  There are mainly five types of sentences.  1.            Assertive or Declarative Sentences- The sentences which say something in a general way are called assertive or declarative sentences.   2.            Interrogative Sentences- The sentences which ask questions are called interrogative sentences.   3.            Imperative Sentences- The sentences which express commands, requests or advices are called imperative sentences.   4.            Exclamatory Sentences- The sentences which express sudden or strong feelings are called exclamatory sentences.   5.            Optative Sentences- The sentences which express wishes, desires or prayers are called optative sentences.

#### Grammar

Grammar   1. NOUN   A noun is the name of a person, place or thing, etc.     1.            Proper Noun A proper noun is the name of some particular person, place or thing. For example: Ashoka was a wise king. Here, Ashoka is the proper noun.   2.            Common Noun A common noun is a name given in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind. For example: The boy plays in the playground. Here, boy is the common noun.   3.            Collective Noun A collective noun is name of a number of person or things taken together. For example: There was a great crowd. Here, crowd is the collective noun.   4.            Material Noun A material noun is the word used for the substance of which things are made. For example: Brass is yellow. Here, brass is the material noun.   5.            Abstract Noun An abstract noun is usually the name of a quality, action, or state considered apart from the object to which it belongs. For example: I remember my childhood. Here, childhood is an abstract noun.   2. PRONOUN   A pronoun is a word which is used in place of a noun.   Kinds of Pronoun:   1.          Personal Pronoun Personal pronoun stands for person or thing. For example: I am young. Here, I is a personal pronoun.   2. more...

#### Short Composition

Short Composition   It is a test of the student's ability to express his knowledge and ideas in written English. Study the following short compositions:   Library   Library is the place where we can get a collection of books on various subjects. Here, the books are categorised into various headings and sub-headings based on the subjects they relate to. The place is calm and has proper sitting arrangement. It has a perfect ambience for reading. We can also get library membership and take books home for a certain period of time. So library is a perfect place to hone our reading skills.     My Ideal Teacher   There is an adage in Sanskrit ?A teacher takes his pupil from darkness to the light of knowledge and wisdom?'. Such is my teacher. He is an ideal teacher. His technique of departing knowledge helps in my all round development. From a very early age I have been under his guidance. He leaves no stone un-turned to help me master the subject. He plays a major role in shaping my future. It is very hard to get a teacher and a guide like him. I am very thankful for all the efforts he takes to make me a good individual.

#### Measurement

Measurement  Synopsis
• In most of the countries, the metric system of measurement is used.
• Standard units of measurement (Metric system)

 Length Metre (m) Mass Kilogram (kg) Capacity Litre

• In the metric system, the standard unit of length is metre. The standard unit of mass is kilogram and the standard unit of volume or capacity is litre.
• A metre is divided into 100 equal parts called centimetres.
 $\mathbf{1cm =}\frac{\mathbf{1}}{\mathbf{100}}\mathbf{m = 0}\mathbf{.01m}$ $\mathbf{1m =100 cm}$

• 1 cm is divided into 10 equal parts called millimetres.

 $\mathbf{1 cm = 10 mm}$ $\therefore$ $\mathbf{1mm=}\frac{\mathbf{1}}{\mathbf{10}}\mathbf{cm=0}\mathbf{.1cm}$

• Materials like plywood, laminates, aluminium, tin and stainless steel are available in sheets. Their thickness is expressed in mm.
• While adding or subtracting, units of the same kind must be grouped together.
• The units of length we use most often are millimetre, centimetre, metre and kilometre.

 $\mathbf{10 mm = 1cm, 10 cm = 1dm, 10 dm = 1m,}$$\mathbf{10m = 1Dm, 10Dm = 1 Hm, 10 Hm = 1Km}$ $\mathbf{1000 cm = 1m}$ $\mathbf{1000 m = 1km}$

 $\mathbf{1000 m = 1 km}$ $\therefore$$\mathbf{1m = }\frac{\mathbf{1}}{\mathbf{1000}}\mathbf{ km = 0}\mathbf{.001 km}$

• The mass or quantity of an object is measured in kilograms, grams and milligrams.
• Large masses are measured in kilograms. 1000 grams make 1 kilogram.
• Light objects or very small quantities are measured in milligrams. 1000 milligrams make a gram.
 $\mathbf{1000 mg = 1g}$ $\mathbf{1000 g = 1 kg}$ $\therefore$ $\mathbf{1g =}\frac{\mathbf{1}}{\mathbf{1000}}\mathbf{ kg = 0}\mathbf{.001 kg}$

• The volume or quantity of a liquid is measured in the units of capacity. Smaller quantities are measured in units of millilitres.

 $\therefore$$\text{1 m}l\text{ = }\frac{\text{1}}{\text{1000}}\text{ }l\text{ = 0}\text{.001}l$

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