# Current Affairs 4th Class

#### Blood Relation

Blood Relation   Learning Objectives
• To get aware of blood relations.
• To get idea about a family tree.
• Improving the logical ability.
• To be perfect in solving problems.
What is a Blood Relation? Blood relations are biological relations. Remember, a wife and a husband are not biologically related but they are biological parents of their own children. Similarly, brother, sister, paternal grandfather, paternal grandmother, maternal grandfather, maternal grandmother, grandson, grandmother, niece, cousin etc. are our blood relatives.   Types of Blood Relations There are mainly two types of blood relations: (i) Blood relations from paternal side. (ii) Blood relations from maternal side. Now, we will discuss both kinds of relations one by one.   (i)     Blood Relation From Paternal Side These types of blood relations can be further subdivided into three types:   (a) Past generations of father Examples: Great grandfather, great grandmother, grandfather, grandmother etc.   (b) Parallel generations of father Examples: Uncles, aunts etc.   (c) Future generations of father Examples: Sons, daughters, grandsons, granddaughters etc.   (ii)    Blood Relations From Maternal Side These types of blood relations can also be subdivided into three types:   (a) Past generations of mother Examples: Maternal great grandfather, maternal great grandmother, maternal grandfather, maternal grandmother etc.   (b) Parallel generations of mother Examples: Maternal uncles, maternal aunts etc.   (c) Future generations of mother Examples: Sons, daughters, grandsons, granddaughters etc.   Some Important Blood Relations
• Son of father or mother                           —>      Brother
• Daughter of father or mother              —>      Sister
• Brother of father                                         —>     Uncle
• Brother of mother                                      —>      Maternal uncle
• Sister of father                                              —>     Aunt
• Sister of Mother                                          —>     Maternal Aunt
• Father of father                                          —>     Grandfather
• Father of father of father                     —>     Great grandfather
• Father of grandfather                             —>     Great grandfather
• Mother of father                                        —>      Grandmother
• Mother of mother of father                —>      Great grandmother
• Mother of grandmother                       —>      Great grandmother
• Father of mother                                      —>     Maternal grandfather
• Father of father of mother                   —>     Great maternal grandfather
• Father of maternal grandmother      —>     Great maternal grandfather
• Mother of mother                                       —>      Maternal grandmother
• Mother of mother of mother               —>      Great maternal grandmother
• Mother of maternal grandmother    —>      Great maternal grandmother
• Wife of father                                               —>      Mother
• Husband of mother                                   —>      Father
• Wife of grandfather                                  —>      Grandmother
• Husband of grandmother                     —>      Grandfather
• Wife more...

• #### Coding-Decoding

Coding-Decoding   Learning Objectives
• To get aware of coding - decoding.
• Improving the logical ability.
• To be perfect in solving problems.
What is Coding-Decoding? In reasoning, words, letters and numbers are coded according to a certain rule. While solving problems, students have to identify that particular rule first and then the same rule is applied to decode other coded words, letters, numbers etc. The types of coding-decoding problems will give you more clear concept about it. But before coming to the actual problems, we must remember the positions of letters in English alphabet in forward order that will help you in solving problems of coding-decoding. Let us see the positions:   Table 1: Positions of letters in forward order (Left to Right)
A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 E 5 F 6 G 7 H 8 I 9 J 10 K 11 L 12 M 13
N 14 O 15 P more...

#### Direction Test

Direction Test   Learning Objectives
• To get aware of direction map.
• Improving the logical ability.
• To be perfect in solving problems.
Direction Sense Test The concept behind the directions is same that we use in our daily life. To solve the direction sense test, first we need to make a sketch of the data provided. Remember, four main Directions are: North (N), South (S), East (E), West (W). Four Cardinal Directions are: North-East (N-E), North-West (N-W), South-East (S-E), South-West (S-W).   Direction Facts:
• At the time of sunset, the shadow of an object (or a man facing East) is always in the East.
• At the time of sunrise, the shadow of an object is always in the West.
• If a man stands facing the North at the time of sunrise, his shadow will be towards his left and at the time of sunset, it will be towards his right.
• At 12: 00 noon, the rays of the sun are vertically downward, hence there will be no shadow.
•   Clockwise and Anticlockwise Turn If you move in direction which is same as the moving direction of a clock hands, your movement is called clockwise turn. Clockwise Turn                           Anticlockwise Turn   If you move in the opposite direction of the clockwise direction, your movement is called anticlockwise turn.   Example:
• Garima starts moving from a point P towards East. After walking some distance she turns her left. Now, her direction is definitely towards:
• (a) South                                   (b) North (c) East                                      (d) West (e) None of these   Answer (b) is correct. Explanation: Here, we make sketch as follows: 2.            Pinki starts moving from a point P towards East. After walking some distance she turns her right. Now, her direction is definitely towards: (a) South                                   (b) North (c) East                                      (d) West (e) None of these   Answer (a) is correct. Explanation: Pictorial presentation explains the truth. Let us see:   3.          Raj starts walking from a point X towards West. After some distance he takes left turns and walks to a point Y. Now, his direction from X is definitely towards: (a) East                                     (b) West (c) North-West                (d) South-West (e) None of these   Answer (d) is correct. Explanation: Pictorial presentation explains the truth. Let us see:   N W = North West N E = North East S W = South West S E = South East   4.         In the figure give below, Joseph is facing towards the stadium. He makes a $\frac{3}{4}$ turn to the left. Where will he be more...

#### Series

Series   Learning Objectives
• Number Series
• Letter Series
• Mixed Series
What is a Number Series? A number series is a sequence of many elements made of numbers only. Such sequence is formed by putting the numbers one after another from left to right.   Example: (i) 1 2 3 4 5                                  (ii) 6 5 4 3 2                               (iii)$\left( 1+1 \right)\text{ }\left( 1+2 \right)\text{ }\left( 1+3 \right)$          (iv)$(1+1)\text{ }(1+2)\text{ }(1+3)$                  Properties of Number Series (1) A number series can be in forward or reverse order. (2) A number series can be in random order. (3) A number series must have more than one element. (4) A single number series can have more than one series.   Example: Look at the following: (i) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7              (Forward order series) (ii) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1             (Reverse order series) (iii) 12, 123, 1234 (iv) 1 5 2 6 3 7   Commonly Asked Question   1.            Find the next number. 2 3 4 5 6 7  (a) 9                             (b) 8 (c) 7                             (d) 5 (e) None of these   Answer (b) is correct. Explanation: Option (b) is correct because the series goes as following: $2+1=3$ $3+1=4$ $4+1=5$ $5+1=6$ $6+1=7$ $7+1=$ Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (b). Note: This problem is based on forward order series.   2.            Find the next number. (a) 6                             (b) 7 (c) 8                             (d) 10 (e) None of these   Answer (a) is correct. Explanation: Let us see: R Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (a).   3.            Find the next number. (a) 21                           (b) 18 (c) 19                           (d) 20 (e) None of these   Answer(c) is correct. Explanation: R Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (c).   4.          Find the missing number in the following series. 6 2 8 1 10 0  (a) 12                                        (b) 11 (c) 3                              (d) 5 (e) None of these   Answer (a) is correct. Explanation: Let us see: The pattern: Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (a).   5.            What comes next in the following series? (a) 6                                          (b) 8 (c) 12                           (d) 13 (e) None of these   more...

#### Order and Ranking

Order and Ranking   Learning Objectives
• To get aware of Ranking.
• Improving the general awareness.
• Increasing the word power.
Introduction   Ranking is based on the arrangement of things in a particular order. The arrangement may be on the basis of their position, size, age etc.   Position Series Test In this series, questions are asked about the positions of the persons from up or down, or from left or right, etc. Some important types are as given below   Order and Ranking Concepts: Formulas to determine the positioning of a person: (1) $\text{Left}+\text{Right}=\text{Total}+1$ (2) $\text{Left}=\text{Total}+1-\text{Right}$ (3) $\text{Right}=\text{Total}+1-\text{Left}$ (4) $\text{Total}=\text{Left}+\text{Right}-1$   Note: the above formulas are only for a single person's position.   Same is for vertical and horizontal positioning of a person. (1) $\text{Total}+1=\text{top}+\text{Bottom}$ (2) $\text{Top}=\text{Total}+1-\text{Bottom}$ (3) $\text{Bottom}=\text{Total}+1-\text{Top}$ (4) $\text{Total}=\text{Top}+\text{Bottom}-1$   PART-II (Same Positions)   Example: 1.        In a row of persons, position of Raj from left side of the row is 17th and position of Raj from right side of the row is 24th. Find total number of persons in the row.   Explanation: Total number of persons = (Position of A from left + Position of A from right) -1 $\Rightarrow$Total number of persons = $\left( 17+24 \right)-1=41-1=40$   2.            In a row of 12 persons, position of A from left side of the row is 8th. Find the position of A from right side of the row.   Explanation: Position of A from right side = {(Total number of persons - Position of A from left side) +1} $\Rightarrow$Position of A from right side = $\left( 12-8 \right)+1=4+1=5\text{th}$ position.   Commonly Asked Question   1.            In a row of persons, position of A from left side of the row is 13th and position of A from right side of the row is 31th. Find total number of persons in the row. (a) 45                                        (b) 44 (c) 43                                        (d) 42 (e) None of these   Answer (c) is correct. Explanation: Total number of persons = (Position of A from left + Position of A from right) $-1$ $\Rightarrow$Total number of persons =$\left( 13+31 \right)-1=44-1=43$. Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (c).   2.          In a row of persons. Raj is 18th from left end and 41th from right end. Find out total number of persons in the row. (a) 49                                        (b) 52 (c) 58                                        (d) 62 (e) None of these   Answer (c) is correct. Explanation: Total number of persons = (Position of A from left + Position of A from right) $-1$ $\Rightarrow$Total number of persons =$\left( 18+41 \right)-1=59-1=58$. Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (c).   3.            In a row more...

#### Inserting Missing Number

Inserting Missing Number   Learning Objectives
• To get aware of Missing Number.
• Improving the general awareness.
• Increasing the word power.
Introduction In these types of questions different characters/numbers/letters are arranged in a matrix with one term missing or characters are arranged in a wide range of geometrical figures. The characters in such arrangement follow a certain pattern and you are required to identify that pattern so that you can substitute the question mark (?) with a suitable character.   Such questions can be solved as series (numbers/letters) are done. No particular or specific rules are applied in such questions. Although you must keep the following tips in your mind:   Let us see some examples to understand this concept properly.   Example:   1.            Find the number which will replace the question mark.   (a) 24                                        (b) 35 (c) 45                                        (d) 58 (e) None of these   Answer: (c) is correct. Explanation: In figure (i), $12+8+15=35$ In figure (ii), $9+15+16=40$ Similarly, In figure (iii), $8+12+25=45$ Hence, answer is option (c).   2.            Identify the number which will replace the question mark.   (a) 144                         (b) 246 (c) 348                          (d) 384 (e) None of these   Answer: (d) is correct. Explanation: In figure (i), $3\times 2\times 4\times 2=48$ In figure (ii), $5\times 2\times 3\times 4=120$ Similarly, In figure (iii), $4\times 2\times 6\times 8=384$   3.            Which number will replace the question mark?   (a) 58                           (b) 64 (c) 98                            (d) 138 (e) None of these   Answer: (d) is correct. Explanation: In figure (i), $(8\times 4)+(5\times 2)=32+10=42$ In figure (ii), $\text{(7}\times \text{8)}+(3\times 4)=56+12=68$ Similarly, In figure (iii), $(6\times 12)+(6\times 11)=72+66=138$   4.            Find the number which will replace the question mark.   (a) 80                                        (b) 72 (c) 62                           (d) 46 (e) None of these   Answer: (b) is correct. Explanation: $4\times 6+5\times 7=24+35=59$ $3\times 2+8\times 5=6+40=46$ Similarly, $5\times 9+3\times 9=45+27=$   5.            Insert the missing number.   (a) 240                         (b) 270 (c) 180                         (d) 260 (e) None of these   Answer (d) is correct. Explanation: $18\times 3\times 5=270$ $9\times 6\times 5=270$ Similarly, $13\times 5\times 4=$   Commonly Asked Question   1.            Find the missing number in the place of ‘?’ in the following:
1 more...

#### Non-Verbal Reasoning

Non-Verbal Reasoning   Learning Objectives
• Analogy
• Odd One Out
• Figure Series
• Embedded Figures
• Geometrical Shapes
• Mirror Images
What is Non Verbal Reasoning? Non verbal reasoning is a figure based reasoning. It has no language at all. To solve non verbal problems one has to find out the pattern of pictorial presentation in the given figure. To get the more clear concept about non verbal reasoning, let us see the types of problems coming before you.   Analogy Simple meaning of analogy is similarity. But, in terms of reasoning, the meaning of analogy is logical similarity in two or more things. In problems based on Analogy, we will usually be given one pair of images that are connected in a particular way and the first image of the second pair. We have to find the correct image to complete the second pair in the same way as the first pair.   Example:   1.            Find the matching pair.   (a)                     (b) (c)                      (d) (e) None of these   Answer (b) is correct. Explanation: In first figure of left pair, middle figure becomes the outer figure outer figure becomes inner figure and inner figure becomes middle figure. In both figures of left pair, outer figures and inner figures are shaded, while middle figure is unshaded.   2.          Identify the relation between figures of the first pair and complete the second pair.     (a)                     (b) (c)                     (d) (e) None of these   Answer (c) is correct.   3.            Find the matching pair.   (a)                        (b) (c)                         (d) (e) None of these   Answer (d) is correct.   4.            Identify the relation between figures of the first pair and complete the second pair.   (a)                  (b) (c)                     (d) (e) None of these   Answer (d) is correct.   5.            Which of the given options more...

#### Number System

Number System   Learning Objectives
• Numbers
• Number System
• Hindu-Arabic Numeral System
• International System of Numeration
• Roman Numerals
• Rules of Ordering in Mathematics-BODMAS
Numbers Numbers are words and symbols representing a count by which we express date, time, position, quantity, etc.   For example: (1) I will go to school at 8 O’clock - Time (2) I stayed in the party for 2 hours - Time (3) My birthday is on January 15 - Date (4) Exam will be starting from 1st March - Date (5) 15th person in the row is Jack - Position (6) 7th book from the left end is the book of Mathematics - Position (7) There are 5 books on the table - Quantity (8) There are 5 kg of flour - Quantity   Numeration Systems Numeration systems are methods of representing quantities. As a simple example, suppose we have a basket of apples. We might want to keep track of the number of apples in the basket, or we might want to sell the apples to someone else, or we might simply want to give the basket a numerical code that could be used to tell when and where the apples come from. In order to perform any of these simple mathematical operations, we would have to begin with some kind of numeration system. In this section, we will study about the following two types of numeration systems:
• Indian System of Numeration
• International System of Numeration
Indian System of Numeration Indian system of numeration is also known as Hindu-Arabic numeral system. This method of numeration is based on the following place value chart: Place Value Chart
Period Kharab Arab Crores Lakhs Thousands more...

#### Algebra

Algebra   Learning Objectives
• Fraction
• Unitary Method
Fraction Fraction represents a part of whole or any number of equal parts. A line separates the two terms. Number above the line is called numerator and the number below the line is called denominator. Denominator of a fraction tells us how many parts the whole is divided into and the numerator tells us how many parts are taken out the whole. Let 4 kg of flour is divided into five equal parts. The amount of each part is represented as $\frac{4}{5}$ kg. Here, the number four-fifth is known as fractional number and its symbol $\frac{4}{5}$ is called fraction.   Understanding Fractions Fractions are formed when we have a whole that is divided into so many equal parts. The shaded portion of a figure can also be represented by a fraction as shown in the table given below.
Shaded Part Fraction Fractional Number Figure
1 part out of 6 equal parts   $\frac{1}{4}$   One-fourth
3 part out of 6 equal parts   $\frac{3}{6}$   Three-sixth
more...

#### Geometry

Geometry   Learning Objectives
• Point
• Line Segment
• Ray
• Line
• Angle
• Triangle
• Angle Based Classification
In our daily life, we come across different types of objects that have specific geometrical shapes or geometrical figures which make them appear unique in their own manner. A shape is the form of an object or its external surface. In this chapter, we will learn about different kinds and names of geometrical shapes along with their meaning and pictures.   Point, Line Segment, Line and Ray   Point: A point has no dimensions. It has only position. It is denoted by a dot (.), for example, point A is marked in the figure shown below.   Line Segment: A line segment is a straight path between 2 points. It has a fixed length. In the figure given below, a line segment BC or CB is shown which is denoted as $\overline{BC}$or$\overline{CB}$.   Line: A line is a straight path that goes on forever in both directions. It does not have fixed length. In the figure given below, a line PQ or QP is shown which is denoted as $\overleftrightarrow{PQ}$ or$\overleftrightarrow{QP}$.   Ray: A ray is a straight path that goes on forever in one direction. It has only one end point. In the figure given below, a ray AB is shown which is denoted by $\overrightarrow{AB}$   Straight Line and Curved Line   Straight Line: A straight line on horizontal plane is the shortest distance between two points. Only one straight line is possible between two points. In the figure given below, a straight line AB is shown which is the shortest distance between the points A and B.   Curved Line: The line other than straight line between two points is called curved line. Two points can be joined in many ways, therefore, infinite curved lines are possible between two given points. In the figure given below, in between two point A and B, a straight line AB and a curved line ADB are shown, where AB is the shortest line.   Closed Figure and Open Figure   Closed Figure: A closed figure is a figure which can be traced using the same starting and stopping points and without crossing or retracing any section of the figure. Square, triangle, circle, etc. are examples of closed figures. Open Figure: An open figure is a figure which can be traced using the different starting and stopping points. Figures given below are examples of open figures which have an opening.   Types of Angles There are different types of angles which have been classified more...

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