Current Affairs 4th Class

Real life Example A verb is a critical element of any sentence. It is an action word that says something about the subject of the sentence. For example, in the sentence, ?The dog ran home,? ?ran? is the verb because it tells what the dog is dong. Examples A. Sunny is talking over his phone.   B.                                 Peter is reading his book.     LEARNING OBJECTIVES This lesson will help you to:
  • learn about verbs.
  • know about Transitive and Intransitive verb.
  • learn the formation and uses of verbs.  
  QUICK CONCEPT REVIEW Verbs are important elements of language and grammar. As our life is full of movements so verbs become an integral part of our speech, conversation and writing mode. Verbs determine the position and action of nouns and pronouns.                                            DEFINITION A Verb is a word used to tell or assert something about some person or thing                                 For examples:                                      Now read these sentences:                         1. The old man walks with the stick. 2. The old man walks slowly. In sentence 1, the action denoted by the verb walks' passes over from the doer or subject 'old mans' to some object 'stick'. The verb 'walks' is, therefore, called a Transitive verb. (Transitive means 'passing over') In sentence 2, the action denoted by the verb 'walks' stops with the doer or subject 'old man' and does not pass over to an object. The verb walks' is, therefore, called an Intransitive verb. (Intransitive means 'not passing over') Definition: A Transitive verb is a verb that denotes an action which passes over from the doer or subject to an object. Definition: An Intransitive verb is a verb that denotes an action which does not pass over to an object, or which expresses a state or being; e.g. He ran a long distance (action). The baby sleeps (state). There is a flaw in this diamond (being). (Intransitive Verbs expressing 'being take the same cases after them as before them.) Most Transitive Verbs take a single object. But such Transitive Verbs as give, ask, offer, promise, tell', etc, take two objects after them - - - an Indirect object which denotes the ' person to whom? something is given or ' for whom' something is done, and a Direct Object which is usually the name of some 'thing', as. His father gave him (indirect) a rupee (direct). He told me (indirect) a secret (direct). Activity v    Create verb poems using the name of a person and verbs that describe her. For example, a student might choose to write ?Mom? at the top of the page. Underneath, he /she should write the verbs that she does, such as ?cares?, ?cooks? and ?works.?   B. Formation of verbs from Nouns   CHARTS A. Formation of Verbs From Nouns   B. more...

Activity Make a flow chart of the various varieties of pronouns giving an example of each of the variety.     LEARNING OBJECTIVE This lesson will help you to:-
  • Know about pronouns and differentiate between various types of pronoun.  
  QUICK CONCEPT REVIEW Pronouns are words like I it which, who, that, his, herself. They are used in place of (pro) a noun. To avoid repetition, we use a pronoun for the second mentions of the same person or thing: I saw the dog, I think it was chewing your shoe.   Now, let's study the different kinds of pronouns..   1. Personal Pronouns: Personal pronouns represent people or things. The personal pronouns are: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, me, him, her, us, them. Personal pronouns are further divided into 3 persons-
  • First person- the person speaking-1, we.
  • Second person- person spoken to- you, yours.
  • Third person- person spoken of- him, her, it.
  • 2. Possessive Pronouns: Possessive pronouns indicate that something belongs to somebody/something. The possessive pronouns are: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, and theirs.     Example sentences: This place is theirs. Is that cat yours? The prize will be his. 3. Reflexive Pronouns: "Reflexive" means "going back to itself." Reflexive pronouns show that the action affects the person who performs the action. Reflexive pronouns end in "-self" (singular) or "-selves" (plural). The reflexive pronouns are: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, and themselves.     Example sentences: He cut himself while shaving. I sent myself to bed. He could hurt himself! 4. Demonstrative Pronouns: "Demonstrative" means "showing, making something clear." Demonstrative pronouns point to things. The demonstrative pronouns are: this, that, these, those. Use "this" and "these" to talk about things that arenear in space or in time. Use "that" and "those" to talk about things that are farther away in space or time.     Example: This is the report I want. That is a big ship. 5. Interrogative Pronouns: "Interrogative" means "used in questions." Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are: who, whom, which, what, whose, whoever, whatever, whichever, whom ever. Use "who" and "whom" to talk about people. Use "which" and "what" to talk about animals and things. Example sentences: Who is your father? Whom did you speak to?   PLAY TIME Material required: lots of picture cards (a boy, a girl, a thing etc, basically nouns) with matching pronoun flash cards. (his, her ,him, them, it etc.) Place all the cards on the table face-down (or posted on the board in a similar way.) The picture cards and pronoun cards are to be placed separately. The class more...

    Activity This activity helps students identify noun and encourages interest in current affairs. The activity can be done individually or in small groups. Each student or groups. Each student or group is given an age-appropriate newspaper or magazine article. The student divides a sheet of paper into three sections, labeling the sections singular, plural and possessive. The student lists the nouns in the article under the appropriate section of the chart.     LOWING OBJECTIVES This lesson will help you to:-
    • understand nouns as a part of speech and its grammatical usage. 
    • analyse different kinds of nouns and distinguishing factors between them. 
    • develop the idea of using the nouns in proper context.  
      QUICK CONCEPT REVIEW Definition: A noun is the name of a person, place, or thing; as Saurav, Kolkata, dog/ cottage, gold, platinum, swarm, flight, honesty, patience.etc.     KINDS OF NOUN There are five different kinds of noun (a) Proper Noun: It is the name of a particular person or place and is always written with a capital letter. Eg, Ashoka was a great king. The Ganga is a sacred river. The Howrah bridge is situated in Kolkata. (b) Common Noun: It is a name which is common to any and every person or thing of the same kind. Eg, the girl is writing a letter. Lion is the king of jungle. We should always respect our teachers. (c) Collective Noun: It denotes a number of persons or things grouped together as one complete whole. Eg, Fleet of ships are standing in the harbour. Keep the bunch of keys safely with you. The Indian cricket team won the World cup in 2011. (d) Material Noun: It denotes the matter or substance of which things are made. Eg, Gold is used to make jewellery. Mason works with bricks and cement. Camels can run easily on sand. (e) Abstract Noun: It is the name of some quality, state or action considered to be apart from the thing to which it belongs. Eg, Honesty, bravery, motherhood, patriotism, infancy, etc.   (A) Proper Noun: The Taj Mahal is situated in Agra   (B) Common Noun: An elephant can carry heavy logs of wood in its trunk.   (C) Collective Noun: A herd of cattle is grazing in the field.   (D) Material Noun: Wood is used to make furniture, doors and windows.   (E) Abstract Noun: Friendship is our greatest strength.     Misconcept / Concept Misconcept: Possessive noun demonstrate ownership or a relationship over Something Possessive noun will have an apostrophe which indicates the ownership. It is common for individuals to confuse possessive nouns with plural nouns. Concept: The Possessive answers the question_ _ _ _ _ whose?. The possessive case more...

    Real Life Example    Tenses are an important part of our communication. They make and break they make and break the meaning of the words in a sentence. We continuously use the tenses in communicating.     LEARNING OBJECTIVES This lesson will help you to:
    • learn about the meaning of tenses.
    • study and learn about the usage of tenses.
    • learn different types of tenses.  
      QUICK CONCEPT REVIEW What are Tenses? Tense is used to show the relation between the action or state described by the verb and the time, which is reflected in the form of the verb. There are three main verb tenses: present, past, and future. Each main tense is divided into simple, continuous, perfect, and perfect continuous tenses. But here, we will only be studying about simple, perfect and continuous tense.     SIMPLE TENSE Things to remember about simple tense: (a) Present tense is the original verb form. (b) Past tense has a few patterns. (c) Future tense needs will (shall) + verb. Example:
    • I run a marathon this year. (present)
    • I ran a marathon last year. (past)
    • I will run a marathon next year. (future)  
      SIMPLE TENSE   SIMPLE PRESENT The simple present tense is used to describe an action that is regular, true or normal.                         Forms of the predicate verb:                         1. BASE (if the subject is I, we, you, they, or any plural) 2. +S (if the subject is he, she, it, or any singular other than I or you)   We use the present tense: 1. For repeated or regular actions in the present time period. I take the train to the office. John sleeps eight hours every night during the week. 2.  For facts. The President of The USA lives in The White House. A dog has four legs. 3. For habits. I get up early every day. Carol brushes her teeth twice a day. 4. For things that are always / generally true The Queen of England lives in Buckingham Palace. They speak English at work. We form the present tense using the base form of the infinitive. In general, in the third person we add 'S' in the third person.     Amazing Facts Americans do not use the present perfect tense so much as British speakers. Americans often use the past tense instead. An American might say "Did you have lunch", where a British person would say "Have you had lunch" For can be used with all tenses. Since is usually used with perfect tenses only.   Negative Sentences in the Simple Present Tense     Historical preview The evolution of a future and perfect tense represents the most significant innovation of Modern English in comparison to earlier stages of that language. Old English had a two tense system (past and non-past), more...

    What is conjunction? A conjunction is a word used to connect. words, phrases or clauses within sentences one sentence to another sentences v It also known as a connector. v It is a part of speech.       LEARNING OBJECTIVES This lesson will help you to: understand conjunctions. learn to use conjunctions.     QUICK CONCEPT REVIEW You must have heard the poem Jack and Jill. Let us recall it once more: "Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water Jack fell down and broke his crown and Jill came tumbling after". You can observe that there is a word which joins the words Jack-Jill. It also connects two actions or ideas-> Jack fell down and broke his crown. This is the work of a conjunction. A conjunction is a word that is used to combine or join sentences .words or group of words.   For example: Meeta has a red, green, blue and purple skirt. Here, the conjunction and joins all related words. And, but, or and so are the most common conjunctions. Let us see some more examples: The teacher might select Aman or Mohit for the play. Here, the conjunction or suggests a choice. My mother loves dogs but she dislikes cats. Here, the conjunction but joins two different ideas. Conjunctions like so, unless and because indicate cause and effect. There are some conjunctions that always come in pairs to join sentences. Either... or -> when we need to make a choice between two things. Neither.... nor -> when need we to make a choice between two things and it meant none of the two. Both?.and -> it is used to join same word- forms. When two sentences have the same subject, you can combine the predicates with the word and. The bird flew over my head. The bird landed on the roof. This can be written as: The bird flew over my head. landed on the roof. Remember to always put a comma before the conjunction whenever you join two sentences. Example:  He visited not only Agra, but also belhi. Here's a fun way to remember conjunctions: Example: 1. She came to my house and baked a cake with me. 2. My cat is hungry because I forgot to feed her. 3. I told her to rewrite her work but she refused. 4. Mother asked me to clean the room or she will punish me.       Point to Remember Use a plural verb if two singular nouns are joined by 'and'. Coordinating conjunctions are conjunctions that join sentence elements that are the same. They can join words, phrases, and clauses. Example: Cookies and milk into the house and out the door He came and she left. List of coordinating conjunctions- For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So  SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Subordinating conjunctions are conjunctions that more...

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