Current Affairs 8th Class

Analogy

Analogy   Learning Objectives
• What is Analogy
• Worker and Product
• Worker and Tool Relationship
• Tool and Action
• Worker and Working Place
• Product and Raw Material
• Quantity and Unit
• Study and Topic
• Animal and Young Ones
Analogy   In general, meaning of analogy is similarity. But, in terms of reasoning, the meaning of analogy is logical similarity in two or more things. This similarity may be on the basis of properties, kinds, traits, shapes etc. In the questions based on analogy, a particular relationship is given and another similar relationship has to be identified from the alternatives provided. Analogy tools are therefore meant to test one's ability to reason - how far you are able to compare and comprehend the relationship that exists between two objects, things or figures. There are many possibilities in establishing a relationship. Here are some useful points on the basic knowledge required for the test.   Worker and Product
• Example
Carpenter: Furniture:: Mason : Wall Explanation: Carpenter makes Furniture and Mason builds a Wall.
• Author: Book
• Architect: Design
• Butcher: Meat
• Chef: Food
• Choreographer: Ballet
• Cobbler: Shoes
• Editor: Newspaper
• Farmer: Crop
• Judge: Justice
• Poet: Poem
• Painter: Painting
• Tailor: Clothes
•            Worker and Tool Relationship
• Example
Woodcutter: Axe :: Soldier: Gun Explanation: Axe is the tool used by a Woodcutter, likewise a Soldier uses Gun to shoot.
• Author: Pen
• Astronomer: Telescope
• Barber: Scissors
• Butcher: Chopper
• Blacksmith: Anvil
• Bricklayer: Trowel
• Carpenter: Saw
• Cobbler: Awl
• Doctor: Stethoscope
• Farmer: Plough
• Gardener: Harrow
• Painter: Brush
• Sculptor: Chisel
• Surgeon: Scalpel
• Surgeon: Scalpel
•   Tool and Action
• Example
Pen: Write :: Knife: Cut Explanation: Pen is used for Writing and Knife is used for Cutting.
• Sword : Slaughter
• Auger: Bore
• Chisel: Carve
• Gun : Shoot
• Loudspeaker: Amplify
• Microscope : Magnify
• Oar: Row
• Spade : Dig
• Shovel : Scoop
• Spoon : Feed
• Spanner: Grip
• Steering : Drive
•   Worker and Working Place
• Example
Farmer: Field :: Doctor: Hospital Explanation: A Farmer works on a Field while a Doctor works in a Hospital.
• Artist: Theatre
• Actor: Stage
• Clerk: Office
• Driver: Cabin
• Engineer: Site
• Lawyer: Court
• Mechanic : Garage
• Pilot: Cockpit
• Sailor: Ship
• Scientist: Laboratory
• Teacher: School
• Warrior: Battlefield
• Worker: Factory
•   Product and Raw Material
• Example
Cloth: Fibre :: Petrol : Crude Oil Explanation: Cloth is made of Fibre and Petrol is extracted from Crude oil.
• Book : Paper
• Butter: Milk
• Furniture : Wood
• Fabric : Yarn
• Jaggery : Sugarcane
• Sack: Jute
• Oil: Seed
• Omlette : Egg
• Paper: Pulp
• Rubber: Latex
• Shoes : Leather
•   Quantity and Unit
• Example
Length: Metre :: Mass: Kilogram Explanation: Metre is the unit of Length and Kilogram is the unit of Mass.
• Angle : Radians
• Current: Ampere
• Energy : Joule
• Force : Newton
• Temperature : Kelvin
• Potential : Volt
• Power: Watt
• Pressure : Pascal
• Resistance : Ohm
• Time : Seconds
• Volume : Litre
• Work : Joule
•   Instrument and Measurement
• Example
Barometer: more...

Blood Relations

Blood Relation             Learning Objectives
• Introduction
• Understanding of some relations
• Relations from one generation to next
• Types of questions
Introduction Blood relation means a biological relation. Remember a wife and husband are not biologically related but they are biological parents of their own children. Similarly, brother, sister, paternal grandfather, paternal grandmother, maternal grandfather, maternal grandmother, grandson, grandmother, niece, cousin etc. are our blood relatives.   Let's understand some relations:
• Mother's or father's son = Brother
• Mother's or father's daughter = Sister
• Mother's or father's brother = Uncle
• Mother's or father's sister = Aunt
• Mother's or father's father = Grandfather
• Mother's or father's mother = Grandmother
• Son's wife = Daughter-in-Law
• Daughter's husband = Son-in-Law
• Husband's or wife's sister = Sister-in-Law
• Husband's or wife's brother = Brother-in-Law
• Brother's son = Nephew
• Brother's daughter = Niece
• Uncle or aunt's son or daughter = Cousin
• Sister's husband = Brother-in-Law
• Brother's wife = Sister-in-Law
• Grandson's or Granddaughter's daughter = Great grand daughter
There are mainly two types of blood relations: (i) Blood relation from paternal side (ii) Blood relation from maternal side   Relations of Paternal side
• Father's father $\to$               Grandfather
• Father's mother     $\to$               Grandmother
• Father's brother    $\to$               Uncle
• Father's sister     $\to$               Aunt
• Children of uncle $\to$                 Cousin
• Wife of uncle     $\to$               Aunt
• Children of aunt $\to$                 Cousin
• Husband of aunt    $\to$               Uncle
Relations of Maternal Side
• Mother's father                        $\to$    Maternal grandfather
• Mother's mother                       $\to$    Maternal grandmother
• Mother's brother                       $\to$    Maternal uncle
• Mother's sister                         $\to$    Aunt
• Children of maternal uncle $\to$    Cousin
• Wife of maternal uncle             $\to$    Maternal aunt
Relations from one generation to next Generation I:       Grandfather, grandmother, maternal grandfather, maternal grandmother $\downarrow$ Generation II: Mother, father, uncle, aunt, maternal uncle, maternal aunt $\downarrow$ Generation III:       Self, sister, sister-in-law, brother, brother-in-law (Present Generation)                           $\downarrow$ Generation IV: Son, daughter, nephew, niece   Types of questions Various types of questions can be asked on blood relations.
• Type 1
In these types of questions, a family tree or a relationship chart is required to be drawn I from the information given in the questions.
• Example
Pointing towards a person in a photograph, Raman said, "She is the only daughter of the mother of my brother's sister." How is the person related to Raman? (a) Uncle (b) Nephew's (c) Mother (d) Sister (e) None of these Answer: (d) Explanation: The mother of Raman's brother's sister is the mother of Raman and only daughter of Raman's mother means Raman's sister. Hence, the person is related as sister to Raman.   Commonly Asked Questions

Series

Series   Learning Objectives
• Number Series
• Letter Series
• Mixed Series
Series Series is a sequence of elements put together according to a certain rule. Series is mainly of three types - Letter Series, Number Series and Mixed Series.     Number Series Such type of series consists of numbers that are arranged in a particular sequence, in the question related to number series, candidates are asked either to insert a missing number or find the one that does not follow the pattern of the series. On this basis we divided the questions of number series in two types. Let’s discuss them one by one.   Type - I (To insert a missing number)
• Example 1
4, 9, 19, 34, 54, ?, 109 (a) 89                            (b) 84 (c) 74                                        (d) 79 (e) None of these Answer: (d) Explanation: The difference between the numbers increases by 5 at each step as it means left to right in the series, after beginning from 5, i.e.,
• Example 2
27, 28, 25, 25, 23, 22, 21? (a) 20                                        (b) 21 (c) 19                                        (d) 18 (e) None of these Answer: (c) Explanation: There are two alternate series: Series I: 27, 25, 23, 21 (following - 2 pattern) Series II: 28, 25, 22, 19 (following - 3 pattern)
• Example 3
3, 15, 90, 630, 5040,? (a) 35280                       (b) 40320 (c) 45360                                   (d) 10080 (e) None of these Answer: (c) Explanation: The series follows the pattern given below.
• Example 4
6, 7, 9, 11, 15, 15, 24, 19 ? (a) 32                                        (b) 34 (c) 36                                        (d) 37 (e) None of these Answer: (c) Explanation: There are two alternate series.   Type - II (To find the number that does not follow the pattern of the series)
• Example 1
10, 13, 26, 37, 51, 85, 154 (a) 10                              (b) 26 (c) 51                            (d) 154 (e) None of these Answer: (c) Explanation: The given series contains two alternate series.
• Example 2
9, 13, 21, 37, 69, 132, 261? (a) 21                                        (b) 37 (c) 69                            (d) 132 (e) 261 Answer: (d) Explanation: Hence, the wrong number is 132 and should be replaced by 133.
• Example 3
2, 5, 11, 23, 48, 95, 191, 383 (a) 5                                          (b) 11 (c) 23                                        (d) 48 (e) 95 Answer: (d) Explanation: Hence, number 48 is wrong and more...

Classification

Classification   Learning Objectives
• Classification
• Classification based on letters
• Classification based on words
• Classification based on numbers
• Classification based on general knowledge
• Miscellaneous classification
What is classification? Classification can be defined as a process of grouping various objects on the basis of their common properties. It helps in sorting out an odd thing or object from a group. In I reasoning, the questions asked on classification are generally are of following types:
• Classification based on letters
• Classification based on words
• Classification based on numbers
• Classification based on general knowledge
• Miscellaneous classification
Classification based on letters Such classification is based on letters of English alphabet. So many groups of letters are given in the question in which one group is different from remaining group and hence, the different group will be our answer.   Example 1
• Find the odd man out of the following options.
• (a) OPQTU                    (b) TUVYZ         (c) CD EH I                   (d) HIJ NO (e) EFGJK Answer: (d) Explanation: (a)        (b)                   (c)          (d)                   (e)      As it is clear that except option is (d), all the other options have a gap of 2 letters between 3rd and 4th letter and the 1st three and last two letters are in consecutive order. While in case of option (d), 1st three letters and last two letters are in consecutive order but there is a gap of 3 letters between 3rd and 4th letter. This is the reason why option (d) separates itself out of the remaining options. Hence, option (d) is the correct answer.
• Example 2
• Find out the option which does not fit into this group.
• (a) TCDBL-LBDCT                     (b) ZPTGE-EGTPZ (c) MPGLMA-AMLMPG              (d) CDPQ-QPDC (e) None of these Answer: (c) Explanation: In this case option (c) is different from others because except (c), in other options, the 2nd part is reverse of the 1st part. Therefore, it is clear that (c) does not fit into the group.   Commonly Asked Questions
• Find the odd one out.
• (a) E O I                        (b) A I U (c) E U A                       (d) P Q R (e) None of these Answer: (d) Explanation: Option (d) is correct because it is a group of consonants while options (a), (b) and (c) are groups of vowels. Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (d)
• Which of the following does not match with the group?
• (a) TPQQPT                  (b) MGRRGM (c) NCRNCR                   (d) BEFFEB (e) None of these Answer: (c) Explanation: Option (c) is correct because in all other options, the last three letters are more...

Directoin Test

Direction Test   Learning Objectives
• Direction
• Types of question based on direction
Direction There are four main directions - East, West, North and South as shown below; There are four cardinal directions - North-East (N-E), North-West, (N-W), South-East (S-E) and South-West (S-W) as shown below:
• At the time of sunrise, if a man stands facing the east, his shadow will be toward west.
• At the time of sunset the shadow of an object is always in the east.
• If a man stands facing the North, at the time of sunrise his shadow will be towards his left and at the time of sunset it will be towards his right.
• At 12: 00 noon, the rays of the sun are vertically downward hence there will be no shadow.
• In this part of reasoning, questions can be asked about the direction of a person or the distance travelled by a person in a particular direction. On this basis, generally, following types of questions can be asked.   Type - I
• Example 1
• After walking 6 km in a direction, I tuned to the right and then walked 2 km. After then I turned to the left and walked 10 km. In the end, I was moving towards the North. I started my journey moving in which direction?
• (a) North                        (b) South (c) East                          (d) West (e) None of these Answer: (a) Explanation: The following path can be drawn on the basis of given information. It is clear from the figure that I started my journey moving in the North direction.
• Example 2
• Rohan walks a distance of 3 km towards north, then turns to his left and walks 2 km. He again turns left and walks for 3 km. At this pint he turns to his left again and walks for 3 km. How far is he from the starting point?
• (a) 1 km                                    (b) 2 km (c) 3 km                                     (d) 4 km (e) None of these Answer: (a) Explanation: From figure, it is clear that OD is required distance which is 1 km.
• Example 3
• One morning Sujata started to walk towards the Sun. After covering some distance she turned to right. She move for a while and again turns to the right. Now in which direction is she facing?
• (a) North                                  (b) South (c) East                                      (d) West (e) None of these Answer: (d) Explanation: Hence, finally Sujata will face towards West,   Type - II PASSAGE Each of the following questions is based on the given information:
• Six flats on a floor more...

• Coding Decoding

Coding - Decoding   Learning Objectives
• Introduction
• Coding - Decoding
• Types of Questions
Introduction The term Coding-Decoding primarily relates with message sent in secret form which cannot be understood by others easily. Coding, therefore, means rule or method used to hide the actual meaning of a word or group of words and decoding means the methods of finding out the actual message that is disguised in the code.   Coding-Decoding Coding is done by changing a word or a term or a name or any value into a secret language. The process of finding the original term or word from the coded form of a word is called decoding. The questions asked in examinations are generally based on decoding a code on the basis of a given code or generating a code on the basis of a code for another word. Let’s discuss the questions.   Type - I In this type of question, a code is to be generated for a word or a term on the basis of the code of the given word.
• Example 1
• If SABOTAGE is coded as UADOVAIE, how will EMERGENCY be coded in the same manner?
• (a) GMGRIEPCA           (b) GMGREPCA (c) BNBQFDOBZ            (d) EOETGGNEY (e) None of these    Answer: (a)                                                          Explanation: The word is coded by only moving the alphabets at odd position two steps forward.   Similarly,
• Example 2
• In a certain code FINGER is written as DGLECP, what will be the code for KIDNEY?
• (a) IGBLCW                  (b) IGCLBW (c) IBCGLE                   (d) IGBKCV (e) None of these Answer: (a) Explanation: The word is coded by moving the letters two steps backward. Similarly, Commonly Asked Questions
• In a certain code 'QUESTION' is written as 'NXBVQLLQ'. How will 'REPLY' be coded?
• (a) YHMOV                  (b) OBMVI (c) VHSOB                                (d) OHMOV (e) None of these Answer: (d) Explanation: The letters of the word are coded by moving three steps backward and three steps forward alternately. Similarly,   SCIENTIST is coded in a certain language as ICSTNETSI. AMBULANCE will be coded in the same language as: (a) MBUALNACA           (b) BMAALUECN (c) MAUBALCNE           (d) UBMLAECNA (e) None of these Answer: (b) Explanation: The word is divided into three equal sections, and the letters in each section are moved backward. Similarly,             Type - II In this type of questions, coding of words is done by writing their letters in reverse order.
• Example 1
If in a certain language KINDLE is coded as more...

Inserting Missing Number

Inserting Missing Number   Learning Objectives
• Inserting the Missing Numbers
Inserting the Missing Numbers   In such type of questions, a figure, a set of figures or a matrix is given, each of which bears certain characters, and be it numbers, letters or a group of letters / numbers following a certain pattern. The candidate is required to decipher this pattern and accordingly find the missing character in the figure.   Example 1 (a) 5                                          (b) 6 (c) 8                                          (d) 9 (e) None of these Answer: (d) Explanation: The sum of numbers on right and centre subtracted from the number on the left gives the number at the bottom, i.e. $93-\left( 27+63 \right)=3;\text{ }79-\left( 38+37 \right)=4,$ Similarly, $67-\left( 16+42 \right)=9$
• Example 2
(a) 3                             (b) 8 (c) 10                                        (d) 14 (e) None of these Answer: (c) Explanation: Letter R is 18th in order of alphabetical series. So the product of vertically opposite numbers + 18 (R) = the sum of two horizontally opposite number, i.e., $(28\times ~23)+18=173+489$ $644+18=662$ $662=662$ Letter C is 3rd in order, so $(54~\times 15)+3=342+471$ $810+3=813$ $813=813$ Similarly, letter D is 4th in order $(1\times ~11)+4=5+?$ $11+4=5+?$ $15=5+?$ or  $5+?=15$ So'           $?=15-5=10$     Commonly Asked Question   (a) 31                            (b) 229 (c) 234                          (d) 312 (e) None of these Answer: (c) Explanation: The number at the bottom is the product of two numbers at the top, i.e., $13~\times 17=221$ $12\times ~19=228,$ Similarly, $13~\times 18=234$   (a) 693                                      (b) 939 (c) 981                                      (d) 993 (e) None of these Answer: (c) Explanation: The squares of two numbers on the top placed side by side gives the number inside the bottom triangle, i.e., ${{6}^{2}}$ and ${{3}^{2}}=369$ ${{2}^{2}}$ and ${{5}^{2}}=425,$ Similarly, ${{3}^{2}}$ and ${{9}^{2}}=981.$

Statement Analysis

Statement Analysis   Learning Objectives
• Statement Analysis
• Solved Examples
Statement Analysis In this action of reasoning certain facts are broken up in few sentences. One should read the statement carefully, so as to arrange them and sort out the given facts.
• Example 1
Ashok is heavier than Gopal. Mahesh is lighter than Jayesh. Prashant is heavier than Jayesh but lighter than Gopal. Who among them is the heaviest? (a) Gopal                       (b) Jayesh (c) Prashant                               (d) Ashok (e) Mahesh Answer; (d) Explanation: On the basis of weight, the descending order will be: Ashok, Gopal, Prashant, Jayesh, Mahesh.   Direction (For example 2 - 3): Read the following information and answer the question that follow it: Paul is taller than Michel, but shorter than Andy. Sam is taller than Michael but shorter than Gary.
• Example 2
Who is the tallest? (a) Andy                        (b) Gary (c) Andy or Gary            (d) Can not be determined (e) None of these Answer: (d) Explanation: On arranging: Andy > Paul > Michael Gary > Sam > Michael So, data is insufficient to determine that who is the tallest.
• Example 3
Who is the shortest? (a) Paul                         (b) Sam (c) Gary                         (d) Michael (e) None of these Answer: (d) Explanation: Michael is the shortest.
• Example 4
Ajay works more than Ram. Alok works as much as Raju. Pankaj works less than Alok. Ram works more than Alok. Who works the most of all? (a) Ajay                         (b) Pankaj (c) Alok                                     (d) Raju (e) None of these Answer: (a) Explanation: On the basis of work done/ the descending order will be: Ajay, Ram, Alok/Raju, Pankaj.   Direction (For example 5-7): Study the following information carefully and then answer the questions given below it:   (i)   Six persons P, Q, R, S, T, and U are residing in the same apartment. (ii)   Out of six persons, three are Judges, one Painter and one Dramatist. (iii)   In the group, there are two married couples. No male member in the group is a Painter or a Dramatist. (iv)   U is in his old age and he lives with his married son R. (v)   Among the three Judges, husband of S, with whom his old aged father lives, earn more than T, who in turn gets more pay than Q. (vi)   The wife of one of the Judges is a Dramatist. (vii)  The Painter earns less than her husband, who in turn earns the least among the Judges. (viii) The Dramatist earns least in the group.
• Example 5
Who is unmarried Judge in the group? (a) Q                             (b) T (c) C                                         (d) Cannot be determined (e) None of these
• Example 6
Who among the following gets the highest salary? (a) more...

Statement Conclusion

Statement - Conclusion   Learning Objectives
• Statement - Conclusion
• Rules
Conclusions Conclusions are inferences that can be drawn on the basis of the information given in the statement. In these type of questions, a candidate is asked to decide whether a given inference follows or not in the light of the given statement or passage. For example, Shravan - Let's go to a restaurant. Prakash - I have only Rs. 100. What is your conclusion? - Shravan and Prakash cannot go to a restaurant. But why? Because nothing comes in Rs. 100 in a restaurant. But how do you know this? You don't. You should keep in mind that never bring outside information into your reading of a decision making problem. Let's understand how should we reach a conclusion. For this, follow the simple rules given below:   Rule 1 Don't assume information, facts unless it is a universal truth.
• Example 1
Statement: People should not give false information to an officer of law. Conclusion: They should be honest. Explanation: The conclusion here is based on universal accepted fact that 'honesty is the best policy'. So, it follows the statement.   Rule 2 A probably true conclusion has no place and you should treat that as 'does not follow'.
• Example 2
Statement: If we bring black money back from abroad, it will lead to country's development. Conclusion: Black money will help in funding our ongoing development projects. Explanation: Here, the conclusion may be true and may not be true. So, it is a case of 'probable true' conclusions. Hence, it does not follow the statement.   Rule 3 Make sure you are not bringing outside information into your questions.
• Example 3
Statement: A player should have the capacity to deal with pressure and control aggression. Conclusion: Mary Kom, who is a great boxer, has all the above qualities. Explanation: In the above conclusion, the author is bringing outside information (about Mary Kom), so it does not follow the statement.   Rule 4 Pay attention to the keywords such as - 'only', 'any' 'if and only if, 'either', 'neither', 'all', 'must', 'never', 'always' etc.
• Example 4
Statement: Parents are ready to pay any price for admission in a good public school for their children. Conclusion: All the parents are well-off these days. Explanation: Since all parents are not very well off, so the conclusion is not true/ use of all makes it invalid. If 'some' would have been used, instead of 'all’ then it might have been true.   Rule 5 For any new scheme, policy, even for an organisation which has been newly introduced, it can be concluded that there is a need for that scheme, or policy or an organisation. It can also be concluded that people will welcome it and there are all the essential more...

Rule Detection

Rule Detection   Learning Objectives
• Rule Detection
• Types of Questions
Rule Detection   In this type of question, a set of figures is given which follow the same rule. On the basis of this rule, the answer figure is to be selected. There are mainly two types of questions asked on this topic.   Type - I In this kind of questions, a rule has been given in the form of a statement and on the basis of this rule a set of figures is to be detected following the rule.   Example 1 Rule: Closed figure becomes more and more open. (a)      (b)      (c)      (d)      (e) None of these Answer: (a) Explanation: The number of lines making the closed figure decreases at every step.   Example 2 Rule: Closed figure becomes more and more open and open figure becomes more and more closed. (a)      (b)      (c)      (d)      (e) None of these Answer: (a) Explanation: The square which is a closed figure looses one side at each step and the arc which is an open figure gradually becomes a circle.   Commonly Asked Questions   Rule: The number of straight lines forming the geometrical pattern goes on increasing. (a)     (b)      (c)      (d)     (e) None of these Answer: (c) Explanation: The number of straight line forming the geometrical pattern is 3, 4, 5 and 6.   Rule: The series become complex as it proceeds. (a)      (b)     (c)      (d)      (e) None of these Answer: (c) Explanation: The number of lines inside the square is increased at each step making the series complex as it proceeds.   Type - II In this type of questions, a set of figures is given in a matrix. All figures in the matrix follows the same rule. To solve these questions, one should look at the figures in matrix carefully and on the basis of this rule, find the figure that fits in the blank box.   Example 1 (a)              (b) more...

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