General form of a number: The general form of a number abc is
abc \[=a\times 100+b\times 10+c.\]
The last digit is 0 or an even number
9340 0 (Last digit 0)
3456 6 (Last digit is an even number)
\[\therefore \]9340 & 3456 are divisible by 2.
The sum of all the digits of the number is divisible by 3.
\[\therefore \]4746 is divisible by 3
The number formed by last two digits of the number is divisible by 4 or are 00.
616 16 \[\div \] 4 = 4
8900 00 (Last two digits are 00)
\[\therefore \]616 and 8900 are divisible by 4.
The last digit of the number is 0 or 5.
60415 5 (Last digit is 5)
76290 0 (Last digit is 0)
\[\therefore \]60415 and 76 290 are divisible by 5.
The last digit is 0 or an even number, and the sum of all the digits of the by 6.
= 27 - 3 = 9
\[\therefore \]7596 is divisible by 6.
The difference between the number formed by the
digit/digits in front and the doubled value of the last digit is 0 (or) is divisible
406 406 is divisible by 7 because
40 - (6 x 2) = 28
28 is divisible by 7.
\[\therefore \]406 is divisible by 7.
8722 is divisible by 7 because
872 -(2x2)= 868
868 is divisible by 7.
\[\therefore \]8722 is divisible by 7.
815 815 is not divisible by 7 because
81 - (5 x 2) = 71
71 is not divisible by 7.
\[\therefore \]815 is not divisible by 7.
The number formed by the last three digits of the number is divisible by 8.
3568 568 \[\div \] 8 = 71
\[\therefore \]3568 is divisible by 8.
Economic Activities and Social Justice
activities refer to the activities related to the production, distribution and
management of material things. Mines, factories, markets, etc., are all covered
under this broad term. Special laws are needed to regulate such activities and
stop the exploitation of those in a weaker position. Laws are needed to protect
not only specific groups (workers or consumers) but also the general public.
LAWS ON ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES LAWS RELATED TO WORKERS
In a poor
country like ours, workers are always at a disadvantage. There is a great deal
of unemployment, so they are often ready to work for low wages and in subhuman
conditions. Quite often they are not even aware of the laws made to protect
them. Even if they are aware, they are afraid of protesting because they know
that if they refuse a job, there will be many others who will be willing more
to work in their place. Let us look at some of the laws made to protect
Wages Act, passed in 1948, fixes the minimum daily wage that must be paid to a
worker. However, it applies to onlv certain kinds of activities, for example,
industrial and construction. It does not apply to domestic work. The minimum
wage is revised from time to time to keep pace with the rising prices. In April
2011, it was revised to Rs.115 per day.
Safety and Welfare
several laws dealing with the safety and welfare of workers, especially those
occupied in dangerous jobs. The Factories Act of 1948, fixes a 48-hour
week for workers and sets standards for lighting, ventilation and safety that
the employer must abide by. Similarly, the Dock Workers (Safety, Health and
Welfare) Act (1986) and the Mines Act (1952) deal with the working
conditions of workers in ports and docks, and mines, respectively.
In 2011, India
(and 469 other countries) signed a United Nations Convention (agreement) to
give domestic workers certain basic rights. This will help India's 4.75 million
domestic workers (mostly women). In the near future, they will be assured of
minimum wages, fixed working hours and a weekly rest day, etc.
Unions Act recognises the Fundamental Right of workers to form unions to
fight for better working conditions. It also sets out rules according to which
such unions should be formed. The Industrial Disputes Act provides for
the setting up of labour courts and industrial tribunals by the
Central and state governments. Labour courts deal with issues concerning
individuals, such as dismissal from job. Industrial tribunals are courts that
deal with collective disputes, such as those relating to wages and working
TO WOMEN AND CHILDREN
of Child Labour
Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 makes it illegal to employ
children under more...
to the people in general. So public facilities are services, institutions, etc.
that are used by the people in general. For example-trains, buses, roads, power
supply and water supply. In this chapter, we will discuss why it is necessary
for the government to ensure that everyone has access to certain facilities and
how this is done in our country.
FACILITIES AND THE ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT
When you need
new clothes you go to a shop to buy them. When you want to watch a film or eat
out, you go to a cinema hall or a restaurant. Shops, cinema halls, restaurants,
some schools and hospitals, and so on, are privately owned. People run them
because they can make a profit out of selling goods (food, clothes, etc.) or
services (healthcare, education, etc.). But there are certain things that
everyone needs, such as wells and drains, which no one wants to make or
maintain because no profit can be made from them. This is one of the reasons
why the government has to get involved in providing such facilities.
relates to the question of equity (equality) or social justice. Article 21
of the Constitution entitles everyone to the Right to Life. The Right to
Life does not only mean the right not to have one's life taken away except
according to the process of law. It also means the right to have the basic
necessities of life. According to the Constitution and various decisions of
the high courts and the Supreme Court, the Right to Life includes the right to
a clean environment (that is, clean air and water), the right to food, the
right to a livelihood, and so on. This is where the government comes in. It
tries to provide the basic necessities of life, either free of cost or at a
price that most people can afford. However, providing for such a vast
population is a problem. So quite often, there are shortages and it is the poor
who are the worst affected.
In urban areas,
the responsibility of supplying water lies with the municipal authority. In
most cases, however, the water supply department (of the municipality) is
unable to meet the requirements of the people.
?In a case related to the Narmada Bachao Andolan, the Supreme Court said:
"Water is a part of the Right to Life...the right to a healthy environment
is also a part of the Right to Life."
?In April 2005, Santulan, an NGO, filed a PIL in the Bombay High Court on
behalf of stone quarry workers at Wagholi in the district of Pune in
Maharashtra. The high court upheld the workers' right to safe drinking water
and directed the state government to complete a water supply scheme for the
workers within four months.
Those who more...
Marginalisation and Social Justice
The sides or
fringes of something are its margins. So, moving away or being made to move
away from the centre of an activity or a group is called being marginalised. A
newcomer in a school or neighbourhood may feel marginalised, a child with a
learning disability may feel marginalised in class, and a foreign student in an
Indian university may feel marginalised. As you may have guessed from these
examples, some elements of being marginalised are being dismcluded,
being ridiculed and bullied, and feeling powerless.
communities or groups are not included in the process of decision-making and
are deprived of the benefits of development. These groups are often minorities,
or small groups that are different from the majority in religion, race or
language. However, all minority communities need not be marginalised. In India,
for example, Christians, Sikhs and Jains are minorities, but they are not
marginalised. On the other hand, the dominant (powerful) community need
not always be in majority. Until 1994, Whites formed the dominant community in
South Africa, though Coloured people were in majority. Remember that the term
'minority' is used in the context of numbers, while the term 'marginalised' is
used in the context of social, political and economic status, or position.
communities face social disinclusion, mistrust, ridicule and hostility. This
often drives them to live together in small areas or pockets of a town/city.
Such urban areas, inhabited mostly by members of the same (usually minority)
community, are called ghettos. For example, Harlem, in New York, is an area
inhabited mostly by African-Americans. The process which leads to the formation
of ghettos is called ghettoisation.
The low social
status of marginalised communities usually translates into low economic status.
They are less educated, have less access to facilities such as schools,
hospitals, housing, piped water and electric supply. Being less educated, they
are less aware of their rights, and having a low economic and social status,
they are less able to fight for their rights. Their participation in the
planning and decision-making processes of society is less significant. This
makes it difficult for them to break the vicious circle of
marginalisation and become a part of the mainstream. A vicious circle is
a sequence of cause and effect that are interconnected, and by the term
'mainstream' we mean the influential or generally accepted group/groups in
GROUPS IN INDIA
forbids discrimination on the basis of race, religion/ language, sex, and so
on. However, in reality certain communities are still looked upon as the
'others' by a large part (if not by a majority) of the population. Even
law-makers, government officials, the police and judges sometimes have these
biases, so these communities find it difficult to seek justice. Women, the
elderly (old people) and the disabled also face discrimination in India.
The Police and the Courts
A crime or an
offence is an act of breaking the law. Laws are made by a society or a State.
So a person who commits a crime wrongs the society as a whole. This is why, it
is the State (or government) that punishes a law- breaker and the people are
told "not to take the law into their own hands".
of the police are to (i) maintain law and order, (ii) prevent crimes, and (iii)
detect and investigate crimes. In its role of maintaining law and order and
preventing crimes, the police guards high- security areas (for example,
government offices), patrols (goes around) localities and is ready at hand
during public meetings, rallies, and so on. Traffic police is a special branch
of the police that is responsible for controlling traffic, and ensuring that
people obey the traffic rules. Some other special branches of the police are
the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) and the Armed
tries to help and protect people by making them aware of the risks of renting
out their houses or cars to strangers, employing domestic help without police
verification, etc. It also helps to find missing people and to rehabilitate
people deserted by their families.
offences for which a person can be tried in a court and be punished with
imprisonment are called cognisable offences. Murder, robbery and
kidnapping are some cognisable offences.
investigation of a cognisable offence begins with the registration of a first
information report (FIR) by the police. An FIR is a written report of a crime.
It can be filed by the victim or a person who has witnessed (seen) or detected
a crime. It can be given in writing or dictated to a police official who is
supposed to write it down. It should contain the following information.
?The time, date and place of the offence and the facts related to the offence,
?The name and address of the person who reports the offence
?The names and/or descriptions of the persons involved or suspected to be
involved in the crime
?The names of witnesses (people who saw the crime being committed), if
After an FIR
has been recorded, the person who reports the crime signs it and keeps a copy
of it. This is his/her legal right.
An FIR should
normally be filed in the police station under the jurisdiction of which the
place of the crime lies. However, even if it is filed in another police
station, the police station is bound to register it and then forward it to the
concerned police station. The more...
When we speak
of the judiciary, we mean the judges or the courts taken collectively. Besides
punishing wrong-doers and protecting the innocent from being wrongfully punished,
the judiciary performs many other functions which we will discuss in this
In brief, the
judiciary performs the following functions:
?It settles disputes between people, between the government and the
people, between state governments, and between the states and the Centre.
?It upholds the rights of the citizens.
?It interprets the Constitution and has the power to declare a law null
and void (strike down a law) if the law violates the principles of the
performing these functions, the judiciary can take no step outside what is laid
down by the law. For example, in deciding upon the guilt or innocence of an
accused person, it must follow the process laid down by the law. Also, it
cannot interfere in the powers of the other two organs of the government?the
executive and the legislature. For example, it cannot make a law even if it
feels that there is a need for such a law. The sources of law in our country
are?(i) the Constitution, (ii) laws made by the Union and state legislatures,
(iii) case law (points of law established by judgments in previous cases), and
(iv) customary law (local customs that are not against the law of the country).
Judiciary and Law
has the power to strike down only those laws that violate the Constitution. It
can neither strike down other laws, nor change them. In June 2011, an NGO
called Mental Health Foundation filed a PIL (see end of chapter) in the
Delhi High Court, asking the court to strike down the law that makes attempting
to commit suicide a crime. Despite the fact that there have been a lot of
protests about the unfairness of punishing a mentally unwell person, the court
said, "It is not for the court to decide on this issue."
is the status of this law now? Whose job is it to change laws to suit the
changing needs and perspectives of the people?
THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM
The two most
significant features of our judicial system are:
?Unified or integrated judiciary
?Independence of the judiciary
We have a
unified or integrated judiciary. This means the courts are connected from the
lowest to the highest levels. If a person (or body) is not satisfied with the
decision of a lower court, he (it) can appeal to a higher court. A higher
court has the power to strike down or modify the decision of a lower court. The
decision of a higher court is binding on a lower court. Also, decisions made by
When we say
that the Constitution is the foundation of all laws, we do not mean that
nothing in it can be changed or that no new law can be made. What we mean is
that any new law that is made must abide by the spirit of the Constitution. We
will discuss the role played by the judiciary in ensuring this in the next
chapter. In this chapter, we will discuss how laws are made and what role the
people play in this process.
CONSTITUTION, PARLIAMENT AND LAWS
Constitution is the foundation of all laws in our country. When we adopted our
Constitution, we retained many of the laws that were in use under the British.
But it would be incorrect to say that we adopted the entire legal system that
was in use. We adopted what suited us and rejected what did not. Even the idea
of equality before the law evolved through the freedom struggle. We were
definitely not equal under the British and many of their laws were heavily
biased against us.
Act of 1870 was one of the most unfair laws used by the British. Under this law
anyone could be imprisoned without a proper trial. The law was used to arrest
great leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Annie Besant.
This law is still used in India. Anyone who "brings or attempts to bring
into hatred or contempt, or excites or attempts to excite disaffection towards
the government..." may be arrested on the charge of sedition.
has been considerable debate on the use of the sedition law in recent years.
Find out what people have to say about it.
HOW LAWS ARE
the supreme law-making body in our country. The state legislatures can also
make some laws, but these laws are applicable only in the state concerned.
Besides, the state legislatures can make laws only on some limited matters that
are mentioned in the State List (law and order, healthcare, transport,
etc.) and the Concurrent List (education, electricity, drugs and
poisons, etc.). Only the Union legislature can make laws on the subjects
mentioned in the Union List (defence, foreign relations, railways,
etc.). It can also make laws on matters covered in the Concurrent List, and
under special conditions, it can make laws on matters in the State List. Under
its residuary powers, it can make laws on any matter that is not covered
in any of the lists.
A bill, as we
have learnt in the preceding chapter, is a proposal for a new law (or to change
an old one). Bills are of three types-ordinary bills, money bills and constitutional
amendment bills. Money bills relate to money matters, such as tax laws. All
other bills that are not related to changing the Constitution are ordinary
The Union Legislature and Executive
With an average
family income of about Rs.50,000 per year, India is among the poorer nations of
the world. Most Indians (about 70%) live in villages and only 75% Indians are
literate. Yet India is one of the most vibrant democracies in the world, where
people have shown time and again that it is they who control the government of
the country through their elected representatives in the legislature.
how the people govern the country through the legislature, we will discuss how
the legislature is formed and how it works. We will also discuss the relations
between the legislature and the executive to understand how these organs of the
Indian State share power and how the system of checks and balances works. We
will take up the powers of the judiciary (the third organ) in Chapter 5.
legislature, or Parliament, comprises the President and the two
houses?the Rajya Sabha (Council of States), which is the upper house,
and the Lok Sabha (House of the People), which is the lower house. A
legislature that has two houses is called a bicameral legislature. The
members of either house are referred to as Members of Parliament (MPs).
our Constitution, the Lok Sabha can have 552 members. At present, however, it
has 545 members. Of these, 543 are elected by the people, while 2 are nominated
by the President from among the Anglo-Indian community.
Each state and
Union Territory (UT) elects a particular number of representatives to the Lok
Sabha. The number is decided on the basis of the population of the state (or
UT). Each state is divided into parts called constituencies and the people of
each constituency elect one member.
Any citizen of
India can stand for a Lok Sabha election, provided he/she is not
?less than 25 years of age, or
?a salaried government employee, or
?Of unsound mind.
standing for an election does not have to belong to a political party. Candidates
who are not supported by any political party are called independent candidates.
Every candidate must have a symbol, so that people may vote by recognising the
symbol. Candidates belonging to parties use their respective party symbols,
while independents use their own symbols. You have studied these in Class 7
panchayat to general elections, ballot papers and electronic voting machines
show symbols against the names of the candidates. In what way is this helpful
for the voters?
elections, or elections to the Lok Sabha, are held every five years. In
other words, members are elected for a term of five years.
Elections can be held earlier if the Lok Sabha is dissolved (dismissed) more...
In India, any
citizen can contest elections, or Join the armed forces or the police, or own
land, or win a scholarship, etc. irrespective of his/her religion. In simple
terms, this is what secularism aims to do. Let us learn more about what
secularism means and how it ensures that no religious community dominates
another. We are proud to belong to a secular State.
means keeping religion or religious beliefs apart from the governance of the
State. (We have discussed the meaning of State in the preceding chapter.) In a
secular country, the State does not interfere in religious matters and religion
has no role to play in the governance of the country. All secular countries
share the following elements.
OF THE STATE TO ANY RELIGION
neither favours any particular religion, nor discriminates against any
religion. In practical terms, this means that no one can be stopped from
studying in a public institution, holding a public office, buying
a house, running a business, or participating in or utilising anything that is
run by the State on grounds of religion. Nor does anyone have an advantage in
these matters because of his/her religion. The State does not impose any
penalty on people for holding a particular religious belief. Nor does it grant
favours to people for belonging to any particular religious community.
The State does
not participate in any religious activities. For example, government offices
and educational institutions do not celebrate religious festivals. They do not
display any religious symbols either. The government does not promote any
religion, for example, by setting up places of worship or publishing religious
There are many
countries in which the State is aligned to a particular religion. The degree of
alignment, however, varies. A theocracy is a State governed by the clergy
(priests). Iran comes closest to this. Its constitution requires the head of
the State to be an Islamic cleric and no law can be passed unless it is in
keeping with the Islamic laws. In other Islamic States, such as Afghanistan,
Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, Islamic law (Sharia) is taken as the foundation for
all laws, but the State is not governed by the clergy. In Costa Rica and
Liechtenstein, there is a State religion (Roman Catholic), while in Italy and
Argentina, the State gives special recognition to a religion (Roman Catholic).
Whatever be the
degree of alignment, linking the State with religion often leads to a lack of
equality and freedom. In Israel, for example, Jews have the advantage of
'instant citizenship'. In Afghanistan, one may be punished for changing one's
you think democracy can exist without secularism?
religion is an entirely personal affair. The State does not interfere and tell
people how to or how not to practise their religion. People are free to belong
to any religious faith they more...
We follow rules
in almost everything we do. There are certain rules in a family as to when
people wake up, Have their meals and sleep. There are rules in a school. There
are rules that people follow in gyms, while playing games and while driving.
Rules are made (and followed) so that people can live and work together in a
smooth and systematic way. Without rules, life would disintegrate into chaos.
A 'nation' or
'State' is governed by rules laid down by its constitution. Before we
discuss what a constitution is and why it is necessary, let us understand what
we mean by the term State. In the context of a country, the word 'state' can
mean one of the many parts it is divided into, such as the states of India or
the USA. 'State' (written with a capital 'S'), on the other hand, refers to a
nation as a political entity (unit). Though 'State' and 'government' are often
used interchangeably, there is a difference between the two terms. The
government of a country max- change periodically, but the State continues to
exist. For example, there have been several changes in government since the
State of India was formed in 1947.
In 2011, Libya
plunged into a civil war, with the people protesting against the dictatorship
of Muammar Gaddafi.
The UN and some
European countries got involved in the armed struggle to establish a democratic
WHAT IS A
The rules and
principles (ideals) on the basis of which a country is governed is called its
constitution. Almost every country has a constitution for the following
?A constitution defines the type of government or political system a
country has. Different countries have different systems. There are monarchies,
in which the king is the centre of power. There are democracies, in
which the people are the source of power. There are dictatorships, in
which a leader (for example, the head of the military) is the most powerful.
widespread protests forced king Gyanendra of Nepal to step down and concede to
the people?s demand for a democratic government
the Net to find out how far the people of Nepal have succeeded in bringing back
peace and setting up a democratic government.
?A constitution describes the principles along which a country is to be
governed. The laws that are made in a country must abide by these principles or
follow the spirit of its constitution. This serves as an important protection
against the danger of a group of people rising to power and making laws to
change the basic structure of the State.
?A constitution lays down the powers of the different organs of the
government and provides measures so that more...