Archives January 2013

If you can make the photons of a laser light that hits atoms have more energy than those that leave the atoms, then the atoms get colder. The trick is to tune the energy of a laser photon to a value that is slightly below that of the energy of an electronic transition in the atom. Due to the Doppler red-shift of the photons, those atoms moving toward the beam absorb more photons than those moving in the opposite direction. Emitted photons leave the atom in random directions, and the result is a general loss of momentum and kinetic energy. The atoms get colder because temperature is proportional to the kinetic energy. The atoms need to be at very low concentrations. The idea, was first suggested in 1975 by Theodore Hansch and Arthur Schawlow at Stanford University in California. Ten years later, Steven Chu of AT&T Bell Labs put it more...

In 1923 Juan de la Cierva (1895-1936) pioneered the first autogyro. These machines appear superficially similar to helicopters, but with a single unpowered rotor. Early autogyros were less maneuverable than helicopters and were unable to take off or descend vertically. The invention of the autogyro predated the helicopter and so paved the way for vertical flight. Autogyro rotors are not powered, unlike those of a helicopter, and thus work in a similar way to spinning "helicopter" seed pods such as those of the box elder tree, Acer negundo. These seeds are aerodynamically shaped to spin as they fall, allowing the seed to disperse much further; autogyro rotors autorotate in the same way. The power or thrust of the autogyro comes from a powered propeller (or in later designs a jet engine) meaning that most do require some takeoff runway, but normally only tens of feet. As they can land in more...

"... if you had a multiplayer game that exceeded sixteen, you might as well call it massive." Raph Koster, Sony Online Entertainment Few people today remember the simpler multiplayer creations that started the craze for shared gaming. The likes of Everquest, World of Warcraft, and even Second Life owe their existence to those who saw how much fun it would be for gamers to be able to interact with many others in an alternate reality on the Internet. Two of the pioneers of Massively Multiplayer Online (MMO) gaming were Kelton Flinn and John Taylor, who together founded the games company KESMAI. Although several text-based multi-user dungeon (MUD) games had existed since the late 1970s, they worked on a huge step forward—a graphic-based massively multiplayer game: Air Warrior. Released in 1987, Air Warrior was a World War II flight-combat simulator that many people, hundreds' at a time, could play together online- more...

Sonia Gandhi is truly one of the most popular Indian women, who with her amazing grace anointed as the queen of sacrifice. The way by which she declined the post of the Prime Minister of India has proved her to be true Indian. She, is the course, became the first-ever person to decline the post of the PM, and amazed the whole world. As an as true politician, she claims she was always clear in her mind that she would not accept the post of Prime Minister even if it came her way. Born at the small town of Orbassano, near Turin, Italy in 1946, Sonia Maino was sent to Cambridge, UK to study English where in 1965, she met Rajiv Gandhi which resulted in their marriage. It gave her the honour of becoming a part of a great Indian family. Now they started leading a happy life, away from more...

Lack of education results in ignorance. And ignorance finally leads to superstition. In villages we notice superstitions at every step. The villagers are so ignorant that they often oppose programmes that are meant to help them. They suffer from numerous superstitious beliefs and never try to come out of them. They believe that diseases are the curse of gods and goddesses. Thus instead of qualified doctors they go to quacks and witch doctors. Sometimes, they go to the ojhas to find the remedy. Out of their ignorance, the villager never feel the Importance of family planning. They do not realize that it is better to have few children in order to lead a more comfortable and tension free life. They regard child birth as the gift of god and thus think that they have no right to bring check on it. As a result, they have four, five, six children. more...

There is obviously none in this vast world who does not desire happiness. Everyone is running after it to get it. But happiness is not such a thing that can be achieved so easily. If we want it we must think how to choose a profession. There are some people who believe in stars and think that only stars can make their fate. But to speak the truth, it is our own thinking which makes or mars our destiny. A good profession can make our life a heaven while bad one a hell. Now it is very much clear how important it is for us to choose a profession. There are many people in the world who are doing a work for which they are not fit. This causes dissatisfaction or depression among them. Therefore, a well-considered plan should be chalked out to achieve a definite end. I think the more...

"Tape is wonderful at preserving evidence... especially on the sticky side." Michael Baden, forensic pathologist The earliest reference to a sticking tape goes right back to 1676, when lute makers used small pieces of paper with glue on to hold pieces in place while they built instruments. By the early twentieth century, much progress had been made in the area of surgical tape for bandages and plasters, but it was not until the 1930s that what we know as sticky tape appeared. Bakers, grocers, and meat packers in the 1920s had started using cellophane to wrap their products. Unfortunately there was no way to seal it and prevent moisture getting in and spoiling the food. To solve this problem they turned to 3M, and 3M turned to engineer Richard Drew (1899-1980), the man behind the invention of masking tape. In 1930, after more than a year of work, Drew and more...

  We all understand that—education is the key factor in enabling economic growth and prosperity, and enhancing our ability to compete in the global economy. It is the path to better jobs and thereby an elevated and improved living standard—the ultimate aim of education.  Given the competitive scenario, admission to the top universities and colleges in India is so difficult and competitive that only a few percent of the total aspirants actually qualify. HCL Learning has taken a step towards helping many aspirants to achieve their goals in collaboration with Resonance, Kota. This Live Interactive Learning by Experts from KOTA is poised to revolutionize the test preparation domain. It enables students from all across India to get access to specialized result-oriented coaching for competitive examinations and skill more...

"The Internet is an opportunity for the best products to win. Java is great technically and people want it." Bill Joy, cofounder, Sun Microsystems In 1991 Sun Microsystems formed "the Green project" to create a new computer programming tool for the next generation. Trying to anticipate what would happen next in the computing world, the team led by James Gosling agreed that a likely future trend would see the convergence of digital consumer products with computer technology. Perplexed by the number of different types of computer platforms that existed, they decided to create a "write once, run anywhere" programming language that would work on any device. In order to interest the digital cable television industry, they mocked up an interactive home entertainment controller. However, the technology—featuring animations, a touch screen, and a networking ability similar to the Internet—was so advanced that the companies could not see a use for it. more...

"This is a strategic weapon that really reshaped how the Air Force looked at strategic warfare." Lt. Col. Chris Knehans, 7th Fighter Squadron After years of development, the Lockheed Martin Corporation's first viable stealth fighter aircraft, the F-117 Nighthawk, finally came into operation in 1983. The technology it contained made it practically invisible to conventional radar at the time, giving it a major military advantage over conventional aircraft. The rounded shape of conventional aircraft improves their aerodynamics but also makes them highly visible to enemy, radar. The F-117's designers found that an aircraft of sharp angles and triangles reflected back less radar. The surface of the plane is also coated in paint that absorbs radar signals, making the plane even more invisible. Other adaptations include an unconventional tailfin and reduced turbulence on the engine outlets. However, the aircraft is inherently unstable and would be impossible to fly without its extensive more...


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