The study of the evolution of the scientists since the seventeenth century to the present day can be quite interesting and it may perhaps hold the key for improving our system During the early days, a stint in the army, then becoming c physicist or chemist or going over to biology was very common in Europe.
Thanks to the encouragement given by Napoleon, to scientists and mathematicians, they could join the army as officers and continue the work. This also encouraged the scientists to become politicians later, just as our engineers and doctors go for IAS and IFS.
However, in our system, administrators cannot go back as scientists. In the nineteenth century, the trend changed. Those with high motivation joined universities and institutes of technology and got on - the-job training. All the same, changing the field was equally common, in the west.
In the twentieth century, every professional has more...