Current Affairs 3rd Class

Classification   Learning Objectives
  • To get aware of classification.
  • Increasing interest about this segment of reasoning.
  • Improving the general awareness for solving problems.
  • Increasing the word power for solving problems.
  What is Classification? We take an element out of some given elements and the element to be taken out is different from the rest of the elements in terms of common properties, shapes, sizes, types, nature, colours, traits etc. In this way the remaining elements form a group and the element that has been taken out is not the member of that group as this single element does not possess the common quality to be possessed by rest of the elements.   Types of Classification          (a) Letter Based Classification Such classification is based on letters of English alphabet. So many groups of letters are given in the question in which one group is different from remaining group and hence, the different group will be our answer.   Example 1:  
  • Find the odd one out of the following options.
  •   (a)                 (b) (c)                 (d) (e) None of these Answer (c) is correct. Explanation:      It is clear, except option (c), all the other options have a consecutive order while in case of option (c), there is reverse order. Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (c) Example 2:  
  • Given group of letters form a particular pattern. Find out the option which does not fit into this group.
  • (a) P R T V                    (b) K M O Q (c) F H I K                     (d) D F H J (e)    None of these                      Answer (c) is correct.   Explanation:    (a)    (b)    (c)    (d) Above presentation makes it clear that (c) does not fit into the group. Hence, option (c) is correct.   Commonly Asked Question  
  • Find the odd one out.
  • (a)                              (b) (c)                              (d) (e) None of these Answer (d) is correct. Explanation: It is clear, except option (d) all the other options have a consecutive order while in case of option (d), there is a reverse order. Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (d).   2.            Which of more...

    Blood Relation   Learning Objectives
    • To get aware of blood relations,
    • To get an idea about family tree.
    • Improving the logical ability.
    • To be perfect; in solving problem.
      Blood Relation Blood relations are biological relations. Remember, a wife and a husband are not biologically related but they are biological parents of their own children. Similarly, brother, sister, paternal grandfather, paternal grandmother, maternal grandfather, maternal grandmother, grandson, grandmother, niece, cousin etc. are our blood relatives.   Types of Blood Relations There are mainly two types of blood relations: (i) Blood relations from paternal side.                                      (ii) Blood relations from maternal side.                  Now, we will discuss both kinds of relations one by one.   (i)   Blood Relation From Paternal Side These types of blood relations can be further subdivided into three types:   (a) Past generations of father Examples: Great grandfather, great grandmother, grandfather, grandmother etc.   (b) Parallel generations of father Examples: Paternal Uncles, Paternal aunts etc.   (c) Future generations of father Examples: Sons, daughters, grandsons, granddaughters etc.   (ii) Blood Relations From Maternal Side These types of blood relations can also be subdivided into three types:-   (a) Past generations of mother Examples: Maternal great grandfather, maternal great grandmother, maternal grandfather, maternal grandmother etc.   (b) Parallel generations of mother Examples: Maternal uncles, maternal aunts etc.   (c) Future generations of mother Examples: Sons, daughters, grandsons, granddaughters etc.   Some Important Blood Relations  
  • Son of father or mother         Brother
  • Daughter of father or mother         Sister
  • Brother of father               Uncle
  • Brother of mother               Maternal uncle
  • Sister of father                           Aunt
  • Sister of Mother                Maternal Aunt
  • Father of father                Grandfather
  • Father of father of father             Great grandfather
  • Father of grandfather              Great grandfather
  • Mother of father                  Grandmother
  • Mother of mother of father            Great grandmother
  • Mother of grandmother              Great grandmother
  • Father of mother                 Maternal grandfather
  • Father of father of mother             Great maternal grandfather
  • Father of maternal grandmother         Great maternal grandfather
  • Mother of mother                  Maternal grandmother
  • Mother of mother of mother           Great maternal grandmother
  • Mother of maternal grandmother         Great maternal grandmother
  • Wife of father                                 Mother
  • Husband of mother                     Father
  • Wife of grandfather                     Grandmother
  • Husband of grandmother         Grandfather
  • Wife of son                                 Daughter-in-law
  • Husband of daughter                     Son-in-law
  • Brother of husband                     Brother-in-law
  • Brother of wife                                 Brother-in-law
  • Sister of Husband                     Sister-in-law
  • Sister of wife                                 Sister-in-law
  • Son of brother                                 Nephew
  • Daughter of brother                     Niece
  • Wife of brother                                 Sister-in-law
  • Husband of sister                     Brother-in-law
  • Son of sister                                 Nephew
  • Daughter of sister                     Niece
  • Wife of uncle                                 Aunt
  • Wife of maternal uncle                     Maternal Aunt
  • Son/daughter of uncle, aunt Cousin
  • Son/daughter of maternal uncle         Cousin
  • more...

    Analogy   Learning Objectives
    • To get aware of analogy.
    • Increasing interest about this segment of reasoning.7
    • Improving the general awareness.
    • Increasing the word power.
      Introduction Analogy means similarity, likeness or comparison between two objects which have some relationship between them, but in all other respect is dissimilar or different. In questions based on analogy, a particular relationship is given and another similar relationship has to be identified from the alternatives provided. Some of them are given below.   Profession In these types of questions, two words are given. These words are related to each other in profession. The student is required to find out the relation between the two words and has to choose the correct option from the given alternatives.  
  • Farmer: Field
  • Warrior: Battlefield
  • Engineer: Site
  • Sailor: Ship
  • Pilot: Cockpit
  • Beautician: Parlour
  • Artist: Theatre
  • Actor: Stage
  • Mechanic: Garage
  • Lawyer: Court
  • Scientist: Laboratory
  • Teacher: School
  • Doctor: Hospital
  • Clerk: Office
  • Servant: House
  • Driver: Vehicle
  • Grocer: Shop
  • Painter: Gallery
  • Waiter: Restaurant
  • Worker: Factory
  • Umpire: Pitch
  • Gambler: Casino
  • Example-1  
  • Doctor is related to Patient in the same way Lawyer is related to _____.
  • (a) Customer                  (b) Accused (c) Magistrate                 (d) Client (e) None of these Answer (d) is correct. Explanation: Lawyer is related to Client. Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (d).  
  • Chef is related to Restaurant in the same way Druggist is related to _____.
  • (a) Medicine                   (b) Pharmacy (c) Store                        (d) Chemist (e) None of these Answer (a) is correct. Explanation: Druggist is related to Medicine. Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (a).   Dwelling Place In these types of questions, two words are given. These words are related to each other's dwelling. The student is required to find out the dwelling relation between the two words and has to choose the correct option from the given alternatives.  
  • Bee: Apiary
  • Cattle: Shed
  • Lion: Den
  • Poultry: Farm
  • Horse: Stable   Example-2           
  • Horse: Stable :: Fish : ?
  • (a) Stable                                   (b) Den (c) Aquarium                  (d) Aviary (e) None of these Answer (c) is correct. Explanation: Fish lives in Aquarium. Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (c).  
  • Lion: Den :: Monks : ?
  • (a) Monastery                   (b) Den (c) Aquarium                    (d) Kennel (e) None of these Answer (a) is correct. Explanation: Monks live in Monastery. Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (a).   Product In this type of questions, two words are given. These words are related to each other in products they are associated with. The student is required to find out the relation between the two words and has to choose the correct option from the given alternatives.  
  • Farmer: Crop
  • Hunter: Prey
  • Carpenter: Furniture
  • Author: Book
  • Goldsmith: Ornaments
  • Butcher: Meat
  • Cobbler: Shoes
  • Poet: Poem
  • Dramatist: Play
  • Architect: more...

  • Coding-Decoding   Learning Objectives
    • To get aware of coding - decoding.
    • Increasing interest about this segment of reasoning.
    • Improving the logical ability.
    • To be perfect in solving problems.
      Coding-Decoding In yet another manner of coding/ particular words are assigned code names which are further coded. The questions on this pattern may appear meaningless but the codes must not be confused with the basic properties of reality. Example-1  
  • If 'red' is called 'blue’, blue' is called 'pink', 'pink' is called 'green' and 'green' is called 'yellow', then what is the colour of sky?
  • (a) Red                          (b) Blue (c) Pink                          (d) Green (e) None of these Answer (c) is correct. Explanation: Colour of sky is blue but blue is called pink. Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (c).  
  • If 'book' is called 'pen', 'pen' is called 'sky', 'sky' is called 'water' and 'water' is called 'chair', then what do we drink?
  • (a) Book                                    (b) Water (c) Pen                          (d) Chair (e) None of these Answer (d) is correct. Explanation: We drink water and water is called chair. Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (d).  
  • If 'May' is called 'February', 'February' is called 'January', 'January' is called 'December' and 'December' is called 'August', then first month of the year is ____.
  • (a) January                    (b) February (c) December                  (d) August (e) None of these Answer (c) is correct. Explanation: First month of the year is January and January is called December. Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (c).  
  • If 'teacher' is called 'driver', 'driver' is called 'shopkeeper', 'shopkeeper' is called 'postman' and 'postman' is called 'police', then who brings letters for us.
  • (a) Teacher                    (b) Driver (c) Police                       (d) Postman (e) None of these Answer (c) is correct. Explanation: Postman brings letter for us and Postman is called Police. Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (c).     5.            If  is called  is called  and  is called  then, Which one has five sides? (a)                        (b) (c)                       (d) (e) None of these Answer (c) is correct. Explanation:  has 5 sides and  is called . Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (c).   6. more...

    Direction Test   Learning Objectives
    • To get aware of direction map.
    • Increasing interest about this segment of reasoning.
    • Improving the logical ability.
    • To be perfect in solving problems.
      Direction Test The concept behind the directions is same that we use in our daily life. To solve the direction sense test, first we need to make a sketch of the data provided. Remember, four main Directions are: North (N), South (S), East (E), West (W). Four Cardinal Directions are: North-East (N-E), North-West (N-W), South-East (S-E), South-West (S-W).   Direction Facts:
  • At the time of sunset, the shadow of an object (or a man facing East) is always ii the East.
  • At the time of sunrise, the shadow of an object is always in the West.
  • III. If a man stands facing the North at the time of sunrise, his shadow will be toward his left and at the time of sunset, it will be towards his right.            
  • At 12: 00 noon, the rays of the sun are vertically downward, hence there will b no shadow.
  •   Clockwise and Anticlockwise Turn If you move in direction which is same as the moving direction of a clock hands, you movement is called clockwise turn. If you move in the opposite direction of the clockwise direction, your movement is called anticlockwise turn.                                                      Commonly Asked Question   Direction (Q. No l to 5): Look at the picture below and answer the following questions:               
  • Kunal has to take _______ turn from bus stop to reach hospital.
  • (a) Left                         (b) Right (c) Forward                    (d) Backward (e) None of these Answer (b) is correct. Explanation:     2.           Kunal's house is towards which direction of hospital? (a) South-West               (b) South-East (c) North-East                 (d) North-West (e) None of these Answer (d) is correct. Explanation:               3.          Kunal goes to bus stop from hospital. If he has to return to the hospital, in which direction will he come? (a) East                         (b) West (c) South                                   (d) North (e) None of these     Answer (c) is correct.   Explanation:             4.           If Kunal goes to hospital and then returns to the house, then which directions will he follow? (a) East, North                (b) North, East (c) South, West               (d) North, West (e) None of these Answer (d) is correct. Explanation: more...

    Series   Learning Objectives      
    • Number Series
    • Letter Series
    • Mixed Series
       Number Series A number series is a sequence of many elements made of numbers only. Such sequence is formed by putting the numbers one after another from left to right.   Properties of Number Series (1) A number series can be in forward or reverse order. (2) A number series can be in random order. (3) A single number series can have more than one series.              Example-1       
  • Find the missing number in the following series.
  • (a) 9                              (b) 8 (c) 7                             (d) 5 (e) None of these Answer (d) is correct. Explanation: Option (d) is correct because the series goes as following: 1 + 1 = 2 2 + 1 = 3 3 + 1 = 4 4 + 1 =   5 + 1 = 6 Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (d). 2.            Find the next number. (a) 6                                          (b) 5   (c) 7                                          (d) 4 (e) None of these Answer (a) is correct. Explanation: Let us see:   Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (a).   3.           Find the missing number in the following series. (a) 12                           (b) 11 (c) 13                           (d) 15 (e) None of these Answer (c) is correct. Explanation: Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (c).   4.            What will come in place of the blank space? (a) 26                                        (b) 25 (c) 23                                        (d) 24 (e) None of these Answer (c) is correct. Explanation: Option (c) is correct because the series goes as following: 21 + 2 = 23 + 2 = 25 25 + 2 = 27 27 + 2 = 29 Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (c).   5.           Find the missing number in the series given below. (a) 8                              (b) 7 (c) 6                              (d) 4 (e) None of these Answer (b) is correct. Explanation: Option (b) is correct because the series goes as following: 15 – 2 = 13 13 - 2 = 11 11 – 2 = 9 9 – 2 =   7 – 2 = 5 Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (b).   more...

    Order and Ranking   Learning Objectives
    • To get aware of Ranking.
    • Increasing interest about this segment of reasoning.
    • Improving the general awareness.
    • Increasing the word power.
      Introduction Ranking is based on the arrangement of things in a particular order. The arrangement may be on the basis of their position, size, age etc.   Example-1   1.          A is shorter than B but taller than C. D is taller than A. E is shorter than C. Who amongst the following is the shortest? (a) D                             (b) C (c) E                                          (d) A (e) None of these Answer (c) is correct. Explanation: A < B, B > A > C, D > A, C > E   Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (c).  
  • A is taller than B but shorter than C. B is just as tall as D but taller than E, then D is:
  • (a) Just as tall as A        (b) Shorter than B (c) Taller than C             (d) Shorter than A (e) None of these Answer (d) is correct. Explanation: C > A > B,   B = D > E C > A > B = D > E                                                                               Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (d).  
  • A is taller than B. C is taller than A. D is taller than E but shorter than B. Who among the following is the tallest?
  • (a) E                             (b) D                                (c) A                              (d) C (e) None of these Answer (d) is correct. Explanation: C > A > B, B > D > E  C > A > B > D > E Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (d).  
  • In a office, Prem is senior of Raj and Raj is junior of Meena. Arun is senior of Prem and Radhey is senior of Arun. Who is the senior most?
  • (a) Meena                     (b) Arun (c) Prem                        (d) Radhey (e) None of these Answer (d) is correct. Explanation: Radhey > Arun > Prem/Meena>Raj Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (d).  
  • Prem is older than Arun but younger than Raj. Arun is older than Prakash but younger than Raj. Who is the oldest?
  • (a) Arun                         (b) Prakash (c) Prem                        (d) Raj (e) None of these Answer (d) is correct. Explanation: Raj > Prem > Arun > Prakash Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (d).   Direction (Q. No. 6 to 10): Study the following arrangement to answer the given questions   Y # 0 U 7 D $ V @ B E 8 © X 1 A C % P 2 4 Q I N 6 M * Z 5  
  • If all the numbers are dropped from the more...

  • Non-Verbal Reasoning   Learning Objectives
    • To get aware of non-verbal reasoning.
    • Increasing interest about this segment of reasoning,
    • To understand the logic of figures.
    • To be perfect in solving figure based problems,
      Non Verbal Reasoning Non-verbal reasoning is a figure based reasoning. It has no language at all. To solve non-verbal problems one has to find out the pattern of pictorial presentation in the given figure. To get more-clear concept about non-verbal reasoning, let us see the types of problems coming before you.   Mirror Images In a plane mirror, if we lift our right hand, the image in the mirror shows our left hand and if we lift our left hand, the image shows our right hand. Therefore, in a mirror image, the left part of an object becomes right part and the right part becomes left part. Left Hand Side (LHS) Right Hand Side (RHS) For example, Mirror Image of Capital Letters and Numbers (1 to 9):   Example-1   1.            Choose the option which most resembles the mirror image of the given combination. (a)                      (b) (c)                       (d) (e) None of these Answer (a) is correct. Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (a).   2.            Choose the options which most closely resembles the mirror image of the given combination. (a)                     (b) (c)                     (d) (e) None of these Answer (b) is correct. Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (b).   3.            Choose the options which most closely resembles the mirror image of the given combination. (a)                    (b) (c)                    (d) (e) None of these Answer (b) is correct. Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (b).   4.            Choose the options which most closely resembles the mirror image of the given combination. more...

    Number System   Learning Objectives         
    • Number Types
    • Number Patterns
    • Divisibility Rules and Divisions
      Types of Number Numbers are classified according to their types. The first type of numbers is the counting numbers or the natural numbers and the next type of numbers is the whole numbers, which are the natural numbers together with zero. Let us study these two number types.   Natural Numbers and Whole Numbers   Natural Numbers Counting numbers are known as natural numbers. There are infinite natural numbers starting from 1. Natural numbers are denoted by N. Therefore, N = {1, 2, 3, 4,.....} The arrow-head on the right side shows the natural numbers counting upto infinite.   Whole Numbers                                                Counting numbers including 0 are known as whole numbers. If the counting numbers start from 0, then they include the set of whole numbers. Whole numbers are denoted by W. Therefore,                                                           W= {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,......}                                                                                            The arrow-head on the right side shows the whole numbers counting up to infinite.    Ascending and Descending Order                        Ascending Order                                                     Numbers in a group are said to be in ascending order when they are arranged from the« smallest to the largest number. For example, the ascending order of the numbers: 45, 23, 34, 76, 87, 90 is 23 < 34 < 45 < 76 < 87 < 90.   Descending Order Numbers in a group are said to be in descending order when they are arranged from the largest to the smallest. For example, the descending order of the number: 56, 34, 46, 23, 55 is\[56>55>46>34>23\].   Face Value and Place Value We have already learnt about ones, tens and hundreds upto three places. Now, we will learn about the fourth place which is 'thousands' or 1000s. A number with thousands place will have four digits in it.   Face Value of a Digit                                                       The face value of a digit in a number is the value of the digit itself. Therefore, the face value of a number does not change on changing its place. For example, in the number 4673, the face value of 6 is 6. If the digit 6 changes its place from hundreds to tens (4763), then the face value of 6 remains same as 6.                                       Place value of a Digit The place value of a digit is the value of where the digit is in the number. The place value of a number changes according to the placement of digits in the number. The place value of 6 in the number 4673 is 600. On changing the place of 6 from 4673 to 4763, the place value of 6 changes from 600 to 60.   Number Facts
    • We use 10 digits 0, 1, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 to form numbers.
    • If we use 4 digits, more...

    Algebra   Learning Objectives
    • Fractions
    • Time and Clock
    • Money
      Fractions                                             A fraction is a part of whole. There are two numbers to every fraction, which are called term. A line separates the two terms. Number above the line is called numerator and the number below the line is called denominator. Denominator of a fraction tells us how many parts the whole is divided into and the numerator tells us how many parts are taken out the whole. For example, in the fraction\[\frac{2}{5}\], 5 is denominator. So, the whole unit or one whole has been cut into 5 equal parts.                                          2 is the numerator. Now, 2 parts out of 5 parts is being talked about or 1 part is going to be shaded or taken out. Here, the number \[\frac{2}{5}\] is known as fractional number and its symbol \[\frac{2}{5}\] is called a fraction.                                          Types of Fractions There are several types of fractions. Let us study the fractions and their types.   Unit Fractions A fraction, whose numerator is 1, is called a unit fraction. For example, \[\frac{1}{5},\frac{1}{3},\frac{1}{9},\frac{1}{10}\]are unit fractions. Here, the denominators of all fractions are different but numerators are 1.             Like and Unlike Fractions Fractions in which the denominators are same, are called the like fractions and the fractions in which denominators are different, are called unlike fractions. For example, \[\frac{2}{3},\frac{1}{3},\frac{4}{3}\]are like fractions and \[\frac{2}{5},\frac{7}{4},\frac{3}{8}\] are unlike fractions.   Operations with Fractions   Addition of Like Fractions Suppose two fractions are \[\frac{1}{5}\] and \[\frac{3}{5}\] and we have to add them.                                     So, we have, \[\frac{1}{5}+\frac{3}{5}=\frac{1+3}{5}=\frac{4}{5}\] Therefore, the sum of like fractions \[=\frac{Sum\text{ }of\text{ }Numerators}{Common\text{ }Denominator}\]   Word Problems Based on Fractions A fraction is defined as a portion of the whole. It is made up of two numbers: Numerator and Denominator. Fraction is a small amount of whole quantity. For example, if a piece of wire is divided into three parts, then each part is one-third part or \[\frac{1}{3}\] part of whole. The word problems involving fractions are usually based on real-life. Let us look at the following problems based on fractions.   Time and Clock                                      Time is important to plan our day. Time is the ongoing sequence of events. We use time to order events in the past, present and future. Time is passing non-stop. We use a clock or watch to measure time. Time is measured in seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months and years with the help of clocks and calendars.               Indian Currency                                   Currency is a generally accepted form of money, including coins and paper notes. Different countries uses different currencies. Indian currency is know as Rupees. Symbol for Indian rupees is ‘Rs.’ and Symbol for Indian paise is 'p'. We write 78 rupees as Rs.78 and 50 paise as 50 p. There are 100 paise in one rupee. Suppose we have rupees one hundred four and more...



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