Components of Computer System
Any computer system consists of the four basic units; namely input unit, storage unit, central processing unit and output unit. Central Processing unit consists of Arithmetic logic unit and Control unit.
A computer performs five major functions no matter what size they are of as follows:
- Data or Instructions are accepted as input,
- Data and Instruction are stored
- Processing of data as per the instructions,
- Control of all operations inside the computer
- Result in the form of output.
BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSETEMS
Following are the various components of a computer system-
Data and instructions must enter the computer system before any computation can be performed on the supplied data. The input unit that links the external environment with the computer system performs this task. An input unit performs the following functions:
- It accepts (or reads) the list of instructions and data from the outside world.
- It converts these instructions and data in computer acceptable format.
- It supplies the converted instructions and data to the computer system for further processing.
The job of an output unit is just the reverse of that of an input unit. It supplied information and results of computation to the outside world. Thus it links the computer with the external environment. As computers work with binary code, the results produced are also in the binary form. Hence, before supplying the results 10 the outside world, it must be converted to human acceptable (readable) form. This task is accomplished by snits called output interfaces.
Following functions are performed by an output unit.
- It accepts the results produced by the computer which are in coded form and hence cannot be easily understood by
- It converts these coded results to human acceptable (readable) form.
- It supplied the converted results to the outside world.
The data and instructions that are entered into the computer system through input units have to be stored inside the computer before the actual processing starts. Similarly, the results produced by the computer after processing must also be kept somewhere inside the computer system before being passed on to the output units. The Storage Unit or the primary / main storage of a computer system is designed to do all these things. It provides space for storing data and instructions, space for intermediate results and also space for the final results. The specific functions of the storage unit are to store:
- All the data to be processed and the instruction required for processing (received from input devices).
- Final results of processing before these results are released to an output device.
- Intermediate result of processing.
Central Processing Unit
The main unit inside the computer is the CPU. This unit is responsible for all events inside the computer. It controls all internal and external devices, performs "Arithmetic more...