# Current Affairs Teaching

#### Notes - Methods of Teaching EVS

Methods of Teaching Environment Studies   It is possible for teachers to emphasise interdisciplinary teaching and learning in their own classes, e.g. through the topics and examples they choose. Teachers need to have professional skills for using teaching and learning strategies that can help students achieve the wide range of skills, knowledge and values objectives of education for sustainable development. It is also important that teachers work in a co-ordinate and co-operative way so that students are given the opportunity to integrate knowledge across subjects and across the years of schooling.   Children have an innate curiosity, but they require assistance in understanding their observations and how to relate the hew information to their existing knowledge. When teacher encourages children to question, predict, explain and explore in a safe environment, they offer children the support that is essential for becoming successful environmental science/studies students and thinkers.   5.1 Teaching Strategies According to E. Stones and S Morris, "Teaching strategy is generalised plan for a lesson, which includes structure, desired learner behaviour in terms of goals of instruction and an outline of planned tactics necessary to implement the strategy. The lesson strategy is a part of a larger development scheme of the curriculum." To accomplish the objective of teaching, it for expected that teacher should use different kind of resources available to them in order to transfer the knowledge and present the matter in a very powerful and effective way.   5.1.1 Types of Teaching Strategy Various types of teaching strategy are given as under   Autocratic Style Autocratic style of teaching strategies is traditional. The autocratic style strategies are content centered, teacher remains more active and students are passive listeners. The main emphasis is on presentation. These strategies do not consider the student abilities, interests and personality of the learner. There is no freedom for the learner in this teaching process. These are highly subjective and conventional styles of teaching process, e.g. lectures, tutorials etc.   Permissive Style It is mainly child-centered; the pupils largely determine content. The effective objectives are mainly achieved by permissive style strategies. These strategies create situations for student and teacher interaction and both remain active in teaching. Teaching is organised with the consideration of student interest, abilities and values. These strategies encourage the creativity of the pupils, e.g. project, group discussion, role playing, brain storming etc. Broadly, all teaching methods can be divided into 3 categories       1.      Telling Method It includes lecture, tutorials, presentation etc.       2.      Showing Method It includes demonstration, project, survey etc.       3.      Doing Method It includes practicals, experimentation, role play etc.   5.2.1 Types of Approach Various approaches are used in teaching-learning process. These are given below        1.      Conceptual Approach In this approach, things are learnt in very detailed form regarding its principle, mechanism, application etc. After-the learning, one will be able to reduce the detail form into abstract form. Such approach of learning is called conceptual approach.      2.      more...

#### Notes - Activities and Practcal Work

Activities and Practical Work   Activity method is a process adopted by a teacher to make his/her classroom teaching effective. Through activities, students participate willingly and bring about efficient learning experiences.   6.1 Activity Based Teaching Method Activity based method is a child centred approach. It is a method in which a child is actively involve mentally and physically. Learning by doing is the main focus in this method. It requires active participation of students, where students themselves find out information about the topic given by the teacher.   ·               It gives reality for learning. ·               It enhances student's self-confidence and develops understanding through work.   6.1.1 Importance of Activities in School Curriculum A child has certain peculiarities at every stage. In this modern age, the psychological view point tells us that the study of any subject cannot be successful and complete unless it is based on the age, characteristics and needs of the child. Thus, in the field of EVS, activities play an important role. These activities are fixed by the teacher keeping in mind the capability of students and the curriculum.   6.1.2 Types of Activities The different types of activities which are used in EVS are as follow   Educational Tour ·               Educational tours are important in many ways. Going on a educational trip means more than simply leaving the school grounds. The importance of educational trips includes giving students the chance to build closer bonds with their classmates experience new environments and enjoy a day away from the classroom. ·               When students and teachers are together outside the classroom, new educational environments and experiences are possible. Students may have the opportunity to observe many things that are not available at school, including exotic wildlife, rare plants and may be even the stars if the educational trip is to be planetarium. ·               "Human memory is picture oriented and not word oriented". This is the main concept behind an educational tour. No matter how much students learn a educational tour their favourite memories may be based on their enjoyment of the day. Students will have fun with their friends and they also may return to the classroom with a renewed focus on their school work.   Why School Should have Education Trips? Memory of school educational trips among the most prominent of the formative years largely because they welcome break in the routine for both students and teachers. While purpose is essentially to educate, it can also be a fun bonding experience for everyone involved: Educational trips help in development of children in following ways   Reinforcement The trip can reinforce what a teacher has been instructing in class about a subject and help students to understand the topic better.   Engagement Teachers turn trips into mobile classrooms, more...

#### Notes - How We Make Things?

How We Make Things?   World is made up of various elements and matter. These are made up of molecules formed from atoms. Humans fulfil his requirements from the things available on Earth. He changes the form of things according to his requirement and make them useful.   9.1 Things We Know   Almost everything that we use around us is the gift of science and technology. Be it fan, wheel, vehicle, cloth, paper, electricity, radio etc everything is the result of science and technology.   9.1.1 Matter   Everything in this universe is made up of material which is called as matter. Everything around us-air we breath, food, stones, clouds, stars, plants, water, animals, everything is made up of matter.   Characteristics of Matter   Characteristics of matter are given below ·         Particles of matter have space between them. When we make nimbu paani (lemonade), coffee, particles of one type of matter get into the spaces between particles of the other, because of presence of space between them. This mixing of one type of matter to another type is because of 'diffusion'. ·         Particles of matter are continuously moving because of presence of kinetic energy. With the rise of temperature particles move faster. ·         Particles of matter, attract each other because of presence of force between them. This force keeps the-particles together. The strength of this force of attraction varies from one kind of matter to another.   States of Matter   Matter is present in three states, solid, liquid and gas. Variation in the characteristics of the particles of matter is cause of various states of matter. States of matter are given below   1. Solid States Solid state matter has a definite shape, distinct boundaries and fixed volumes. When outside force apply on solid they tend to maintain their shape. Solids may break under force, but it is difficult to change their shape, hence, they are rigid, e.g. brick, stone, ice etc.   2. Liquid States It is characterised by no fixed shape but fixed volume. They take up the shape of the container in which they are kept. Liquid flow and change shape, so they are not rigid but can be called fluid, e.g. water, milk, oil etc. 3. Gaseous States In gaseous state, both volume and shape are not fixed, e.g. air.   Water exist in all the three-states.   Classification of Matter Matter can be classified as elements, compounds and mixtures.   1. Elements Some substance are found to contain only one kind of atoms or molecules are called elements. Atom of each element has a definite mass, known as atomic mass.   Elements are classified as metals and non-metals   Metals Metals mainly show following characteristics ·         Metals, in their pure form have a shining surface. · more...

#### Notes - Disaster

Disaster     A disaster is a sudden, calamitous event that seriously disrupts the functioning of a community or society and causes human, material and economic or environmental losses that exceed the community's or society ability's to cope using its own resources.   10.1 Types of Disaster   Disaster can be divided into two types on the basis of origin: Natural disaster and human originated disasters.   10.1.1 Natural Disaster   These are major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth e.g. floods, hurricanes, tsunamis volcanic eruption earthquakes truncations and other logic processes. The severity of a disaster is measured in lives lost, economic loss and the ability of the population to rebuild. Some natural disasters are as follow   Earthquake   These are usually caused when rock underground suddenly breaks along a fault. This sudden release of energy causes the seismic waves that make the ground shake. When two plates are rubbing each other earthquake occurs. Earthquake is measured in Richter scale (discovered by Dr Charles Richter in 1930). Following are the impact of earthquake   Impact on Human An earthquake may cause injury and loss of life, road and bridge damage, general property damage. And aftermath may bring diseases, lacks of basic necessities, mental consequences such as panic attacks, depression etc. In Nepal April 2015, earthquake killed nearly 9000 people and injured nearly 22000. It was of 7.8-8.1 on Richter scale.   Shaking and Ground Rupture This way result more of less severe damage to the buildings and other rigid structures. The severity is depend upon the complex combination of the earthquake magnitude and distance from the epicentre. Earthquake on 26th January, 2001 occurred in Kutch District of Gujarat, it was India's 52nd Republic Day at 8:46 AM. It is also called as Bhuj-earthquake. Magnitude of the earthquake was 7.7 on Richter scale. Earthquake magnitude higher than 6 on Richter scales are very dangerous   Landslides   Earthquake can produce slope instability leading to landslides.   Tsunami Tsunamis are long wavelength, long-period sea waves produced by the sudden of abrupt. Movement of large volumes of water including when an earthquake occurs at sea. Generally, Tsunami arises at pacific ocean, where Alaska, Japan, Philippines other islands of South-East Asia, Indonesia and Malaysia included.   Tsunami also occur in Myanmar, Sri Lanka and other coastal areas of India in Indian Ocean. On 26th December, 2004 a magnitude 9.1 earthquake whose epicentre was located in Indonesia's, Sumatra coast recorded most powerful tsunami in history. It killed around 230000 people of 14 countries. India was also effected on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Southern coastal areas.   Volcano   It is a circular vent or fissure in Earth's crust through which lava, ash, rock and gases erupt. Volcanoes are found u three states extinct, dormant and active. These are as follow (i) Extinct Volcano An extinct volcano will never erupt again e.g. Mt Kulal in Kenya, Mt Buninayong in Australia.   (ii) Dormant Volcano more...

#### Notes - Miscellaneous

Miscellaneous   India is a diverse country. Diversity in India can be seen in society, environment politics, administration etc. That is why India is called as a country with unity in diversity.   India ·         Capital New Delhi ·         Population 121.09 crore (2011 census) ·         Area $3287263\text{ }k{{m}^{2}}$ ·         States and Union Territories 29 States and 7 Union Territories ·         Lok Sabha Seats 543 (Present) (2 members and nominated by President) ·         Rajya Sabha Seats 245 (Present) (12 members are nominated by President) ·         Districts 707 ·         Language 23 (Eighth Schedule) Hindi, English, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Kannada, ·         Kashmiri etc. ·         Dance Bharatnatyam, Kathakali, Kuchipudi, Odissi, Sattriya, Mohiniattam etc. ·         Festivals of India 26th January, 15th August, Diwali, Durga-Puja, Onam, Pongal, Baisakhi, ·         Ramnavmi, Chath etc. ·         Industries in India Mining related industries, cottage industries, infrastructure related, industries, tourism and food processing. ·         Main Profession of India Agriculture and related industries and services.
National animal Bengal Tiger
National flower Indian Lotus
National fruit Mango
National more...

#### Notes - Water

Water   Water occupies a very large area of the Earth's surface, it is renewable resource which is essential for sustenance of life. Most of the water on Earth's surface is found in seas and oceans is saline in nature. Fresh water is found frozen in the ice-caps at the two poles and on snow covered mountains. The underground water and water in rivers, lakes and ponds is also fresh.   6.1 Sources of Water   Earth is called as 'blue planet' because of abundance of water of Earth. About 71% of Earth's surface is covered by water, which produce a blue colour reflection when viewed from space. 97.5% of Earth's water is present in oceans. Water also exists in air as water vapour, in rivers and lakes, in icecaps and glaciers. Only 2.5% water present on Earth is fresh water,   Percentage of Water on Earth
Sources Percentage
Oceans 97.2
Sea and salty lakes 0.008
Glaciers and polar ice 2.15
Underground water 0.625
Rivers arid sweet water lakes 0.0091
Atmosphere 0.001
Other sources more...

#### Notes - Shelter

Shelter   Shelter   Shelter is basic need of life not only for humans but also for animals. Shelter provides security from harsh environment conditions and also from dangerous animals.   7.1 Shelter: Primary Need of Life   Shelter is one of the key element of survival along with food and water. Birds, animals, insects, humans, and all other organisms need shelter to survive. Shelter provides protection from weather and any other kind of danger. All organisms want to live independently, where they get enough food for survival and their children live safely. Shelter-is a strong base for living a clean and healthy life.   Shelter can be divided on the basis of need and its surroundings     7.1.1 Terrestrial Shelter   Terrestrial shelter are one that are found on land like forests, grasslands, deserts, shorelines and wetlands. Terrestrial shelter also include man made habitats, like, towns and cities and habitats that are under the Earth such as caves and mines. The kind of plants that grow in a terrestrial habitat and the kinds of animals that can live there, are most influenced by the amount of moisture that is in the soil or that comes down as rain or snow, how cold the area can be during winter, how many nutrients are available in the soil and whether or not the land is flooded with water.   Grassland Grassland are areas where vegetation is dominated by grasses, flowers and hubs. Around one fourth area of Earth is covered by grassland. Latitude, soil and local climate determine what kind of plant grow in a particular grassland. A round due fourth of Earth's surface is covered by grassland.   Two types of grassland are as follow   1. Tropical Grassland ·         It is located mainly between $5{}^\circ -15{}^\circ 0$ North and South of the equator. Annual rainfall is 20-50 inches/year, temperature is around $64{}^\circ F,$ Tropical grassland are found in Central Africa Australia, Brazil and India. ·         These remain hot throughout the year because they are near equator. These have distinctive 'dry and wet seasons. Grasses in this area have very deep roots. Mainly buffalo, rhino, giraffe, elephants, lions, jackals and wild dogs found in these areas.   2. Temperate Grassland ·         Average rainfall is 20-35 inches a year. The amount of rainfall determines the height of grasses in the grassland. Temperate grassland mainly present in Europe, Asia and Polar region of South America. Vegetation in this regions is very limited, mainly lichen, mosses and very small shrubs are present. ·         These vegetations develop during small summers. Animals of this region have thick furs and skin to protect themselves from cold weather. Mainly seal, valrus, polar owl, polar bear, arctic fox are found in temperate grasslands. Maize and wheat more...

#### Notes - Food and Nutrition

Food and Nutrition   Food are the substances which are essential for growth and development of an organism. All living organism need food, some of organisms such as plant make their own food by process of photosynthesis while animals obtain their food from plants and other animal. Human obtain food from both plants and animals.   Process of obtaining nutrients or food is called nutrition. Nutrients are the organic or inorganic substance which help in our survival and maintaining proper health. A nutrient supplies energy to the body, builds and repair body tissue and regulates the metabolism of body on the S of the quantity required by the body nutrients are classified into two categories.   1. Macro Nutrients These nutrients are required by body in large amount. e g. carbohydrate, fat and protein.   2. Micro Nutrients These nutrients are required only in minute or very small amount. e.g. minerals and vitamins. Micro nutrients basically help in regulation of different functions of body.   4.1 Food Products and their Sources Food provides nutritional support to an organism, it usually of plant and animal origin and contains essential nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. Some foods not from animals or plant sources include various edible fungi, especially mushroom. Fungi and ambient bacteria are used in the preparation of fermented and pickled foods like leavened bread, alcoholic drinks, cheese, pickles and yogurt.   Plant Foods     Green plants are the primary source of food. There are around 2000 plant species which are for food and many of the species have several distinct cultivars.   Edible Parts of the Plant Almost each and every part of the plant such as roots, stems, leaves, fruits and seeds are edible.                                                                 Roots Some roots store food are called as modified roots such as bulbs, corms rhizomes, and tubers. Example of modified roots are carrot, turnip, radish and beetroot etc. Carboydrate rich are mainly used in food, for animal feed and for manufacturing starch, alcohol and fermented beverages including beer.   Steins Main function of stem is to provide support to the plant but some stems get modified to store food, such as sugarcane, coriander etc. Potato is the example of stem tuber, ginger is a example of underground stem.   Leaves Green leaves are main source of calcium, we eat spinach, cabbage, curry leaves and many more in our food.   Seeds Edible seeds can be used as grains, pulses and oil seeds. Rice, wheat, jowar, maize, ragi etc are example of grains, grams, peas, beans are pulses and groundnut, sesame, mustard, coconut and sunflower seed are used as oil seeds.   Fruits These are the ripened ovaries of plants, including the seeds within. Many plants have evolved fruits that are attractive as a food source to animals, so that animals will eat the fruits and excrete the seeds some distance away. Fruits, therefore, make up a significant part of the diet. Some botanical more...

#### Notes - Health and Disease

Health and Disease   Health does not simply mean absence of disease or physical fitness. Health could be defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. "Health also increases longevity of people and reduces infant and maternal mortality. Good health is more than being free from disease. Several other factors like cleanliness and sanitation of house, surroundings, quality of food, drinking water, purity of air, exercise, sleep and rest are also very important.   5.1 Diseases Disease is an abnormal conditions of an organism which interrupts the normal bodily functions that often leads to feeling of pain and weakness and usually associated with symptoms and signs.   5.1.1 Types of Diseases Generally, diseases are of two types   1. Diseases by Birth These diseases are from birth e.g. haemophilia, colour blindness, turner's syndrome, aebinism etc.   2. Acquired Diseases These diseases are acquired in one's life span through surroundings e.g. diarrhoea, dysentry, cholera etc. Acquired diseases are of two types   Infectious Diseases Infectious diseases are illnesses that are 'contagious' meaning they can be spread from one person to another. Infectious diseases are caused by microorganism called pathogens. Virus, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, helminthes and insects are common cause of infectious diseases. Disease carrier could refer as a person or organism injected with an infectious disease agent, but does not display symptoms.    Non-infectious Diseases Disease that are not caused by any infectious agent. These diseases are chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly e.g. cancer. Some of the communicable diseases and causative agents are listed below
S. No. Examples Diseases Examples
1. Bacterial diseases Pneumonia, Typhoid, Dysentry, Plague, Diptheria, Tuberculosis
2. Viral diseases Influenza, Common cold, Dengue fever, AIDS, Japanese encephalitis
more...

#### Trending Current Affairs

You need to login to perform this action.
You will be redirected in 3 sec