Current Affairs Teaching

  • Understand the concept of water, its distribution, and sources of water (ground and surface)
  • Be aware of various oceans across the world
  • Explore the various kinds of waves and currents
  • Know the lakes, rivers, and river systems in India
  INTRODUCTION Water is very vital for the existence of any living being. Almost 71% of surface of the earth is covered by water.   DISTRIBUTION OF WATER BODIES The distribution of water bodies around the world is shown in Table 6.1.   Table 6.1 Water bodies and their distribution  
Water                                      bodies Distribution (%)
Oceans                    97.3 (saline water)
Ice-caps                    02.0  
Groundwater                    0.68
Freshwater lakes                    0.009
Inland seas and salt lakes                    0.009
Atmosphere                    0.0019  
Rivers                    0.0001  

  • Understand agriculture as a profession
  • Explore and understand the various kinds of agricultural systems
  • Become aware about various types and forms of cultivation
  • Know about the necessary conditions needed to grow a particular crop
  • Familiarise the cropping patterns in India
  INTRODUCTION Agriculture is the primary occupation of India, and it is the main source of food. It is defined differently in different parts of world. It includes production of crops and animal husbandry. Animal husbandry includes caring and management of farm animals. Farming is the primary economic process and depends upon the climatic and environmental conditions of a particular place. Soil, humidity, and temperature also play a significant role in the development of farming. Tropical region is the most favourable and developed region in agriculture because of the climatic conditions and the easily and cheaply available human resources. Appropriate rainfall is also important for agriculture.   AGRICULTURE SYSTEM In agriculture system, the relationship between farmers and land is studied. In this system, there are different types of cultivations followed and some of them are as follows:          1.   Personal cultivation: It is the most famous agriculture type in the world. Here, the farmer cultivates his land as per his need and choice. He is responsible for his loss and gain, and sometimes farmers borrow land from landlords and farm the land for their use.         2.   Commercial cultivation: This type of cultivation is mostly seen in the regions where people have vast land. Farmers not only farm for their personal needs but also for commercial purposes. A large amount of agriculture production is contributed by commercial farming.         3.   Cooperative cultivation: This type of cultivation is done in the developed nations where the farmers contribute their land, resources, and equipment, and give up their personal interest. It is totally based on group work. This type of farming is practiced in Israel, Netherlands, and Belgiurn, and in Israel, it is called kibbutzim. The production of this farming is distributed among the contributors.   FORMS OF CULTIVATION There are various kinds of farm cultivation. Some of them are discussed below:          1.   Place-bound cultivation: This cultivation is practiced by the farmers from a very long time, continuously without leaving the land. It is one of the major cultivation types across the world including India.          2.   Shifting cultivation: It is opposite of place-bound cultivation. First, the forest land is cleared, and a piece of land is prepared for cultivation. Here, cultivation is done for a specific period of time, and after that, it is left for rejuvenation, and a new forest land is cleared to do the same practice again.         3.   Staircase cultivation: It is practiced on hilly areas to protect the soil from soil erosion. It is also known as step cultivation. The staircase type cultivation prevents the intense flow of water from hills and prevention of more...

  • Develop understanding about various kinds of resources
  • Understand the importance of resources for mankind
  • Know the various kinds of categories and sub-categories of resources
  • Become aware of the energy resources
  INTRODUCTION The things around us with which we fulfil our needs and which have utility values are called resources. All the resources used by mankind have the potential to produce energy which is useful for us. Resources are needed for the vital infrastructural facilities that are used extensively by all the sectors of human activities such as industries, agriculture, transportation, households, and service sectors. We need resources such as electricity, cooking gas, oils, and so on to meet our daily needs at our home. We cannot imagine cooking without energy that comes directly from resources such as fire, kerosene, cooking gas, or electricity. Similarly, in agriculture, we use human resources like man to work in the fields and animals to plough the fields. Now, in modern times, these animals are replaced by machines such as tractors, harvesters, and so on. However, what is reality here is that we need resources. Industries are also dependent on resources to produce various products used by us. The large machineries at factories need resources like electricity or oil to operate, and they also need human resources to keep the machines working. There is a long list where resources are needed and life is beyond imagination without the resources.   TYPES OF RESOURCES On the basis of availability, accessibility resources have been categorized as following:   Natural Resources The resources that are provided by the nature and used in their natural forms or with a slight human modification are called natural resources. The air we breathe and the water we use from rivers, lakes, etc., are some of the examples of natural resources. The earth is full of resources, but all the resources could not be known or used at once. We need innovation, technology, and time to make those resources available for our use. On the basis of these features, the resources are classified as follows:     1.   Actual resources: The resources that are readily available and whose stock, distribution, and deposit are known to mankind are called actual resources.     2.   Potential resources: The resources that are not readily available and whose quantity and stock are not known to mankind are called potential resources. We use a lot of energy and resources daily, but they differ in one feature, that is, the availability of the resources. On the possibility of their availability, recycling, and scope of renewal, the resources are classified as follows:     1.   Renewable resources: The resources whose total stock and availability remain unaffected irrespective of their consumption are called renewable resources. As the word itself defines, renewable means which have the capacity to reproduce itself or which can be renewed.    2.   Non-renewable resources: The resources whose total stock and more...

  When, Where and How   LEARNING OBJECTIVES                  
  • Understand the importance of studying history
  • Know the importance of time and space in history
  • Become aware of various kinds of sources to know history
  • Analyse the present on the basis of past events
  INTRODUCTION We know that history is a part of social science, but the question is: 'Is it only a subject of some- thing from the past? Why the study of history is so important for us? Why do we include this as a subject in our school curriculum? How do we know about our past?' These are some of the questions that will be discussed in this chapter, and we should try to understand history as a discipline. Social science has a specific nature, which is based on the principle of understanding of society. As a subject, Social science is a group of various disciplines such as Political Science, Geography, Economics, and History. Most of the disciplines of Social science deal with the present scenario of society, but history is the only discipline that not only deals with present but also deals about our past. History gives us a base to understand the present scenario on the basis of past occurrences and experiences. When we try to understand our past and analyse we did the good or bad, we do it in the present and that is how we try to analyse our past in present and also unfold our past from the canvas of present. But, while doing this analysis we commit some blunders. Just imagine how people travelled (near and far) in the past from one place to another. How was the life in absence of fire and agriculture? What were the ways of survival? Can we think some of such situations and elaborate about life in the past? History is a subject that gives us insight to understand our past through a journey with time and space. However, another pertinent question is how do you come to know about our past? What are the ways that help us to know our past? Are these ways authentic and qualitative? Some other kinds of questions are: why do we introduce history at school level? What is to be taught in history at various levels? Why do we teach what we teach?   History is not merely a subject; rather, it is a powerful tool that facilitates interaction between the present and the past. It is important to understand that there are various ideas about various civilisations across the world, and Indian civilisation is considered as one the oldest civilisation. However, along with this, we should also understand that the qualities and characteristics prevailed to define a state is different from the present. In addition, when we try to see history only from the present point of view or to legitimate present situation and scenario, it takes us to a different kind of problem. History is one more...

  Earliest Human Civilization and Processes   LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • Understand the primitive lives of human beings and their associated activities
  • Become aware about the shift from food gatherers to cultivators in human history
  • Understand about the Harappan civilisation
  • Explore the reasons of decline of Harappan civilization
  INTRODUCTION This chapter focuses on the earliest human activities, life of hunters and gatherers, first site of farming, and the civilisations. The purpose of this chapter is to understand the processes of human settlement in India. In this chapter, we will focus on first human civilisation in India. We will try to understand how people started farming and how they settled and built well-planned cities in the Indian subcontinent. Why hunting and gathering were important? Why did not they stay at one place? There are four major points for not staying at one place. Less availability of food was the first reason for their migration. All available resources come to an end when used continuously, which forced them to move to other places rich in all kinds of foods. Second, animals moved from place to place either in search of smaller prey or in search of grass and leaves. Third, trees bear fruits and plants are seasonal, and therefore, animals and human beings moved from place to place in search of these fruits and plants. Fourth, living things need water. Water is essential for animals, humans, and plants. Hence, in search of water, they moved to different places. It is interesting and also surprising to know that people around two million years ago lived as hunters and survived only on hunting and gathering fruits. However, archaeological evidences have proved this fact that people lived in Indian subcontinent and they fed themselves by hunting animals, catching fishes, gathering nuts, fruits, and seeds for their survival.   HOW DO WE KNOW ABOUT THESE PEOPLE It is an important question that how we come to know about them when we have no written evidences about their life. In such a situation, archaeology helps us to understand their life and Practices. Archaeologists identified tools made of stones, wood, and bones used by those people for various purposes. It is important to know that tools made of stones served the best among others. Some of such tools are shown in Figure 2.1.   Figure 2.1 tools made of stones   In Figure 2.1, there are different types of tools. These tools are different in shapes and sizes and are used for different purposes. Few tools were used to cut meat and bones. Some were used to chop woods, whereas others were used to kill animals, and the hunting tools were sharp. Wood was used to make tools, huts, and also used as firewood.   PLACES WHERE PEOPLE STARTED TO LIVE Which were the best places to live can be an important question to be asked. There were various criteria which people used to decide more...

  State Formation and Social Change   LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • Explore the journey that led to the formation of states and rise of the states Magadha and Vajji
  • Understand the later Vedic phase with reference to transition of state and social order
  • Know the diffusion of iron technology and agriculture
  • Recognise the relationship between technological development and social change
  • Be familiar with Buddhism and Jainism
  • Explore the diffusion of iron technology and political organization
  INTRODUCTION The chapter leaps into the period of 6th century BCE that is marked by significant political, social, economic, and religious developments. Let us explore all those developments that make this period so distinct from the rest.   POST-VEDIC PERIOD Transition to State and Social Orders (1000 BCE-500 BCE) The history of later Vedic period is based mainly on the Vedic texts compiled after the age of Rig Veda. The sources for later Vedic phase includes three Vedas (Yajur, Atharva, and Sama), Brahmanas, Upanishads, Painted Grey Ware (PGW) sites, and iron implements.   Question: What are POW sites? Answer: Inhabited sites in Upper Gangetic basin of later Vedic period where people used earthen bowls and dishes made of POW pottery.   The sources highlight the Aryan's expansion in the later Vedic phase from Punjab to present-day I Western Uttar Pradesh covered by Ganga-Yamuna doab. The Bharat and Purus were the two important tribes who combined to form the Kuru people.   Question: Do you know the land of Kurus occupying Delhi and upper reaches of Ganga-Yamuna Doab? Answer. It is Kurukshetra.   Gradually, Kurus, coalesced with the Panchalas occupying central part of the doab (modern districts of Bareilly, Badaun, and Farrukhabad). The authority of Kuru-Panchala had set up their capital at Hastinapur situated in Meerut district. The history of Kuru tribes is important for the Battle of Bharata (950 BCE), which is the principal theme of the great epic called Mahabharata resulted in the destruction of whole Kuru clan virtually. In a famous passage of the Satapatha Brahmana, we are told that Agni, the fire God, moved eastward, burning the earth until he reached the river Sadanira (currently, it is called Gandak). There he stopped. He asked chieftain Videha Mathava to carry him over the river. Thus, the land of Videha was Aryanised it took its name from its coloniser. The legend is mentioned in a famous passage of Satapatha Brahmana. This event caused the Vedic people of later Vedic period to move towards Kosala in Eastern Uttar Pradesh and Videha in North Bihar; furthermore, land clearance by burning lead tothe migrations of warriors and agriculturists that resulted in the establishments of new settlements. Do you think that some metal implements would have been used for cutting and burning the trees in the forests? A reference to a presence of a dark or black metal axe has been made in the later Vedic texts such as Shyama or Krishna Ayas and it has also been found at excavated sites such more...

  Empires, Social, and Cultural Exchange   LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • Understand the emergence of Magadha as empire
  • Explore the Mauryan Empire with reference to its kings and administration
  • Know the Ashoka Empire and Ashoka's dhamma
  • Be aware of the Gupta empire and economic prosperity in this empire
  • Know the social and cultural changes took place from 600 BCE to 600 CE
         INTRODUCTION The time period of 600 BC-600 AD, almost 1000 years, was a crucial era in the Indian history. In this time period, many changes happened that gave shape to every aspect of the Indian society. These changes not only happened in political aspect but also in social and religious aspects. In these 1000 years, many changes happened in the subcontinent. In 600 BC, we saw the emergence of Mahajanapcidas. While most of the Mahajanapadas were ruled by kings/rajas, some of the Mahajanapadas ruled in a different way. To understand the emergence of empires in Indian subcontinent, let us analyse the emergence of Magadha.   EMERGENCE OF MAGADHA AS EMPIRE We all know that there are 16 Mahajanapada emerged in the 6th century BC. During the time period of the 6th century to the 4th century BC, Magadha emerged as a powerful state in the Indian subcontinent. Historians defined the emergence of Magadha for different reasons; for example, the region was productive, easy accessibility of iron ores, and use of elephants in the army. Ganga and his tributaries were helpful in cheap communication and transportation. However, knowing about Magadha is an interesting exploration. The emergence of Magadha is contemporary to the emergence of Buddhism and Jainism. The contemporary Buddhist and Jain texts provide us useful information about Magadha's ruling kings such as Bimbisara, Ajatasatru, and Mahapadma Nanda. These rulers had played important role in the emergence of Magadha. Magadha was located in between the Ganga and their tributaries. Some part of the present-day bihar is also included in Magadha. Rajagriha/Rajgir was the capital of Magadha. Rajagriha/Rajgir ns the house of the king. Rajagriha was located in hills and in the 4th century BCE. The capital Shifted from Rajagriha to Pataliputra, which is known as Patna in the present time. The Magadha Empire was ruled by many dynasties but some of them played the most significant role in the emergence of Magadha. Let us try to understand their contribution.   Haryanka Around 542 BCE, Magadha came under the leadership of Bimbisara (542 BCE-493 BCE). Bimbisara belonged to the Haryanka dynasty. He was the first king who strengthened his position by a marriage alliance with their neighbouring states; that is, he first married the daughter of the king of Kosala and sister of Prasenajit; second, he married lichchhavi Princess Chellana from Vaishali, and third, he married the daughter of the chief of Madra clan, Punjab. These marriages to different princely families gave enormous diplomatic support to Magadha. These alliances helped Magadha to expand northward and westward. Bimbisara was killed more...

  Change and Continuity   LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • Understand the emergence of new kingdoms with their nature
  • Familiarise the concept of change and continuity with reference of political and social aspects
  • Explore the process of establishment of empire with examples such as Chola Empire
  • Know and understand the administration of Chola empire
  INTRODUCTION The time period from 7th century to 12th century CE was the time era of continuity. These changes and continuities happened in every aspect of life such as social, political, and economic. These changes played important role in the social, political, and economic life. This five-century period created the base for further social and political changes. Let us try to understand these changes and try to understand their importance in the Indian history.   In the 7th century CE, after the decline of Harshavaradhana empire, many new kingdoms emerged in all Indian subcontinents and some of them were continue. Chalukyas of Badami, Pallavas of Kanchipuram, and Pandyas of Madurai emerged as powerful dynasties. Chalukyas began their rule in Badami and Aihole. They extended their kingdom between Nasik and upper Godavari region. Pulakeshin II was the greatest king of Chalukyas and he ruled from 610 CE to 642 CE. Chalukyas was succeeded by Rashtrakutas. Dantidurga found the Rashtrakuta dynasty and he defeated Chalukyas in 752 CE. Gangas and Kadambas were other powerful emerging dynasties. Gangas' king Durvinita was the prominent ruler and the scholar of Kannada and Sanskrit literature. Kadamba dynasty was found by Mayur Sarman. Kakusthavarman was the most powerful king and great administrator of Kadamba dynasty. He ruled from 435 CE to 455 CE. The southern peninsula was ruled by Pallava, Pandya, and Chola kingdoms.   EMERGENCE OF NEW KINGS AND KINGDOMS Process of Emergence of New Dynasties In the 7th century CE, the process of emergence of new powerful dynasty was different because 7th century was the era of big warrior chiefs and landlords. These warrior chiefs and warlords were in powerful situation and existing kings acknowledged them as Samantas. These landlords presented gifts to kings and provided necessary military help when the king is in need. These Samantas were given rights by the king. After sometime, they gained power and wealth. They became powerful and they themselves adopted the title of Mahasamanta and Mahamandalesvara.     Figure 5.1 New kingdoms from 700 CE to 1200 CE   These titles refer to the great lord of the region. Some of the landlords became more powerful than the kings and they announced themselves independent; for example, Rashtrakutas were the subordinates of the Chalukyas but in the mid of the 8th century, Rashtrakutas announced their land as an independent state. The Rashtrakutas chief Dantidurga was performed Hiranyagarbha ritual with the help'of Brahmanas. Hiranyagarbha rituals believe in the rebirth of sacrificer as Kshatriya. This ritual was performed by people who were not Kshatriyas by birth. This was not the only way to establish independent more...

  Emergence of New Power and Social Change   LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • Understand the establishment of Delhi Sultanate
  • Be aware of Sayyid and Lodhi sultans of Delhi
  • Understand the emergence of empire of The Mughal empire
  • Know the time period of Akbar, Humayun, Jahangir, and Shah Jahan
  • Explore the social changes that took place during the new emerged powers
  INTRODUCTION In 1192 CE, the Second Battle of Tarain was the turning point in the Indian history. India had a long history of foreign invaders; however, this time, India was invaded by new powerful rulers. Most of the invaders came India and they merged with the Indian society. Even if we try to differentiate between them, it is not possible. Muhammad Gori invaded and established his states in India. Before Gori, Delhi was under Rajputs, Tomars, and Chauhans (Chahamanas) of Ajmer. Chauhan king Prithviraj III was the last Chauhan ruler of Delhi. Delhi was located on the border line of the Sindhu and Gangetic planes. Delhi controlled the large area of the north India. Many rich Jain merchants lived in Delhi who constructed several temples. When the sultanate established, they first established their capital in Lahore and later they shifted their capital to Delhi. After becoming the capital of Sultanate, Delhi became continuous centre of power of Indian subcontinent. Let us try to understand how these new powers established in India? Which type of changes accrued in society?   ESTABLISHMENT OF DELHI SULTANATE First, we need to understand what is the meaning of Sultanate? In Islamic world, kingdom was known as Sultanate. After winning the Second Battle of Tarain, Muhammad Gori established his rule in India. After 1192 CE, they continuously attacked north India. Muhammad Gori appointed Qutbuddin A'lbak as his representative in India. He was a Mamluk, which means slave in Arabic language. In 1206 CE, Muhammad Gori was assassinated in Ghazni. Mamluk Qutbuddin Aibak took over all the power and became the first sultan of Delhi. Aibak initiated the construction of Qutub Minar, which was dedicated to famous Sufi saint Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhtiar Kaki. He built two mosques: Adhai din ka jhonpra in Ajmer and QuwwatuI Islam Mosque in Mehrauli. The literary meaning of QuwwatuI Islam is Mighty of Islam. In 1210 CE, Aibak died and his son Aram Shah became the sultan; however, in 1211 CE, Iltutmish assassinated him and became the sultan of Delhi, Iltutmish was the son-in-law of Aibak. He finished the construction of Qutub Minar and QuwwatuI Islam mosque and built a reservoir in Mehrauli. This is known as Hauz-i-Shamsi. lltutmish divided his sultanate Iqta and official of Iqta was called Iqtadar. Iqta was the area where the collected revenue were given as a salary for Iqtadar. He issued silver coins known as Tanka and copper coins known asJital. He formed the most famous and strongest group Turkan- i-Chahalgani. This was constituted by 40 powerful Turkish nobles known as Chalisa. lltutmish was a very clever more...

  Era of Rapid Changes                 LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • Understand the changes happened in empires
  • Explore the raising of local and economic powers such as Bengal, Awadh, Hyderabad, Mysore, and Maratha kingdom
  • Be aware of the origin and decline of various Mansabdars, Subahdars, Jats, and Sikhs as a strong power
  • Know the entry of Portugal and Britishers in India and development and decline of their empires
  • Identify the development of the empire of East India Company and later how it had been taken over by British political powers
             MUGHAL EMPIRE             Mughal empire was the greatest empire of its time but it started declining in the first half of 18th century. There are many reasons behind this declination. Few reasons are rise of new powers, European entry in Indian subcontinent, policies of Aurangzeb, and attacks of Middle eastern powers. We can understand the reasons of declination of Mughal empire in few points:             1.         Aurangzeb's religious policy, and imposition of Jajiya on the basis of religion.             2.         The south policy of Aurangzeb also enriched his power in the South and almost forgot the northern part of his empire.             3.         Corruption in military administration.             4.         Selfishness of Mansabdars of Mughal empire.             5.         Jats' and Rajputs' revolts during the period of Aurangzeb.             6.         Over ambitiousness of Aurangzeb.             7.         Rise of Maratha power.             8.         Exploitative Jagirdah system.             9.         Inner conflict of Mughal nobles: Turanians, Iranians, Afghans, and Indians.             10.       Entry of European powers.             After the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughal empire became very unstable. Due to the instability of central power, a chain of changes started. These changes were rapid in nature. As we know power has direct relationship with political structures and economic system, and if there is a slight change in the power, some changes will surely be observed in politics and economics. When the Mughal empire was falling towards its declination, the Indian sub-continent was also going through some rapid changes. The main reason for these changes was the new raising of local and economic powers. Bengal, Awadh, Hyderabad, Mysore, and Maratha kingdom became the new centres of powers.             Figure 7.1 External boundary of the Mughal Empire 1700 and raising of new powers             Bengal             Due to delineation of central powers, Murshid Quli Khan and Alivardi khan made Bengal free from central Mughal empire. Murshid Quii khan was appointed as Nawab (deputy governor) of Bengal. Although it was not that powerful post but Murshid Quail khan did thing very fast in effective manner to control the total power of Bengal. He was on the footsteps of Awadh ruler. He decreased the Jagirdars appointed by Mughal emperor. In order to reduce Mughal intervention in Bengal administration, he transferred all Mughal Jagirdars to Orissa. He made major raise in revenues of Bengal in order to more...

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