Current Affairs Teaching

  Animals   In our surrounding, we find different type of animals ranging from mammals, reptiles, birds, amphibian, insects and many other smaller forms. Animals may live on land or in water or fly in air depending upon its ability and nature,   Scientists divide animals into groups, depending upon how they are alike and different. Six common groups of animals are 1. Fishes                        2. Amphibians 3. Reptiles                                  4. Insects 5. Birds                         6. Mammals   3.1 Habitat of Animals   A habitat is a place where living things live and they survive in that area. Animals have basic needs; air, water, food, shelter and space. Animals live in habitats all over where they are adapted most. Grasslands, rivers, ponds, trees, forests, deserts and Arctic tundra are used as habitat of animals. Habitat of the animal can also be classified as follow   Land Animals reside on the land and trees, e.g. mammals, birds, reptiles etc., Water Animals reside in the water or water body. e.g. fishes, insects, crabs, sponges, snakes etc. Land and Water Animals which resides and are able to reside in both land and water is called amphibian, e.g. frog, tortoise, snakes, crocodile etc. Animals of Air Habitat Birds and insects.   3.2 Classification of Animals   Animals are mostly multicellular organism present in kingdom Animalia or Metazoa.      Classification Based on Body Structure   Animals are categorised on the presence of vertebral column into vertebrates (i) Vertebrates animal having vertebral column/backbone e.g. Mammals, birds, fish, reptiles and amphibian are included in the category of vertebrates,   (ii) Non-vertebrates i.e. absence of vertebrates/back bone e.g. insects, crabs, snails, starfish are examples of invertebrates.   Classification Based on Nutrition   Autotrophs These are organisms that produces complex organic compounds (carbohydrates) from carbon dioxide and water present in atmosphere with the help of chlorophyll and sunlight.   Heterotrophs These are those organisms that cannot produce their own food but depend upon plants and other organisms to survive. Classification Based on Cell   ·      Unicellular organisms have single cell and rely over only cell for life processes. These are also called single cell organism e.g. Amoeba, by Paramecium, Englena (they can be seen by micro scope).   ·         Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms. All species of animals, land plants and most fungi are multicellular.   Classification Based on Reproduction   Viviparous Animals These are those animals which give birth to their live youngones zygote develop into youngones inside the ovary of the female body, so chances of survival of youngone is more due to proper embaryonic care and protection inside the mother's body e.g. whale, dolphins, dog, cat, human beings etc.   Oviparous Animals These lay fertilised or unfertilised eggs, after a period of incubation youngones hatch out. more...

  Plants   Plants are mostly multicellular organisms however, few unicellular organism like algae are also considered as plants. So, we can say term plant is very broad and it includes single celled algae to flower and fruit bearing trees. Plants may be terrestrial or aquatic, plants which are present on the land surface is called terrestrial plant while the plant which floats, submerged or remain suspended in water is called aquatic plants.   2.1 Different Parts of Plants   Whole structure of plant is divided into different parts. These different parts perform different functions. Different parts of plants are following   2.1.1 Root System   In the root system, soil have water and nutrients required for plant growth, to meet this requirement the underground part of plant called roots help the plant. Roots, root hairs and all its parts together constitute the root system. The first root comes from a plant is called radicle. There are two types of root system, which are as follow   1. Tap Root System It is characterised by large, central and dominant root from which other roots sprout laterally. Tap roots develop from the radicle of a seed forming the primary root. It branches of secondary roots and then further tertiary rootlets. Some modification of tap roots for storage of carbohydrates are as follow ·                     Conical root e.g. carrot ·                     Fusiform root e.g. radish ·                     Napiform root e.g. turnip Tap roots are also important adaptations for searching for water, as those long tap roots found in mesquite and poison ivy.   2. Fibrous Root System   This root system is characterised by thin, moderately branching roots growing from the stem. In monocots mostly fibrous root system present. Some examples are coconut, grass and onion. Plants with fibrous roots systems are excellent for erosion control, because the mass of roots cling to soil particles.   Functions of the Plant Root   Important functions of plants root system are as follow   1. Anchorage and Support The plant root system anchors the plant body to the soil and provides physical support. In general, however, taproot system provides more effective anchorage such that they are more resistant to toppling during storms.   2. Absorption and Conduction The plant root system absorbs water, oxygen and nutrients from the soil in mineral solution, mainly through the root hairs. They are capable of absorbing inorganic nutrients in solution. Plants with a fibrous root system are more efficient in absorption from shallow sources.   3. Storage Some root store food as carbohydrates e.g. potato, sweet potato, carrot, turnip etc.   4. Vegetative' Reproduction roots also help in vegetative reproduction e.g. fasmine and grass.   5. Prevents Soil Erosion Plant root system keep soil integrated and prevents soil erosion during heavy rain.   Modification of Root   1. Prop Roots For additional support in banyan tree, more...

  Family and Friends   Family plays an enormously important role in child's social and emotional development. Family relationship lay the foundation for all other relationships. Through these experiences, children learn to trust others and seek out friendship and comfort. Same way play is also essential for the development of child, it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social and emotional well-being of children and youth.   1.1 Family   The family is a social institution which performs important tasks and contribute to society's basic needs. It is also defined as the core of the social structure and a fundamental unit of society where two or more people are related to each other either by marriage, blood or adoption. In general its consists of father, mother and children. There may be other members in family like grandfather, grandmother, chacha-chachi etc. Many scholars have defined family in different ways. Some of the definitions of family are given below According to Charles Cooley, Family is the primary group and we are member of primary group. At birth child is only biological being. His needs are fulfilled by his family. Right from the birth to death, the family exerts a constant influence on the child. There is not a single person who is not a member of a family in one form or the other. According to Biesenz and Biesenz, The family in one sense may be defined as, "a woman with a child and a man to look after them". Maclver and Page In their book 'The Society', "Family is a group defined by sex relationship, sufficiently precise and enduring to provide for the procreation and upbringing of the children". 1.1.1. Characteristics of Family   Some of the important characteristics of family are as follow
  • Family is also a system of Nomenclature. This means that the children relates to the families name and that name (like religion and castes name etc) is continued in every generations.
  • Universality Family is a universal institution. It is found in each stage of society. There is no society without family. There is not a single person who does not belong to one or other kind of family.
  • Nuclear Position in the Society As the basic unit of human body is cell. In the same way, family is the basic unit of society. Society is an aggregation of families.
  • Sense of Responsibility It is the responsibility of the parents to look after the children of the family.
Parents are responsible for well-being of their children and at the same time, it is also the responsibility of children to obey their parents. At the time of crisis, family is always ready to protect the family's status and prestige in society etc.  
  • Social Control Family is a mechanism of social control. When one is in smaller age he/she does not know what's wrong or right. If you follow right ways you are praised otherwise you are punished.
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