# Current Affairs 12th Class

#### Notes - Coding-Decoding

Coding - Decoding     A ‘code’ is a system of conveying a message through signals. It is a method of sending a message between sender and the receiver in such a way that only the sender and the receiver can know its meaning. However ‘Coding’ is done according to a certain pattern in the mind of the sender. Therefore, its meaning can be deciphered by a third person, only if he carefully studies this pattern. This process is called ‘Decoding’. This capability is important in many fields of application. Generally letters are coded into numbers according to their position in alphabetical order in backward or forward sequence. The position of letters are shown in the tables given below:   Table 1:             Positions of letters in forward order (Left to Right)
 A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 E 5 F 6 G 7 H 8 I 9 J 10 K 11 L 12 M 13 N 14 O 15 P 16 Q 17 R 18 S 19 T 20 U 21 V 22 W 23 X 24 Y 25 Z 26
Table 2:             Positions of Setters in backward order (Right to Left)
 Z 1 Y 2 X 3 W 4 V 5 U 6 T 7 S 8 R 9 Q 10 P 11 O 12 N 13 M 14 L 15 K 16 J 17 I 18 H 19 G 20 F 21 E 22 D 23 C 24 B 25 A 26
Table 3:             Opposite letters Example:
• If in a certain language, MADRAS is coded as NBESBT, how is BOMBAY coded in that language?
•             (a) CPNCBX                  (b) CPNCBZ                                 (c) CPOCBZ                   (d) CQOCBZ                                  (e) None of these                                                       Ans.     (b)             more...

Statements and Conclusions in Symbols   Introduction:             In this type of question there is a combination of two types of problem (i) coding (ii) critical reasoning. You have to         solve these questions keeping in mind that you have to first solve the coding riddle before you begin solving the critical reasoning aspect of it. Given below are a full illustrations which will help you understand this type of question.   Example: Directions (1 - 5): In the following questions, the symbols @, , *, $and # are used with the following meaning: $A\,\,\#\,\,B$ means A is not greater than B. $A\,\\,B$ means is neither smaller nor equal to B. $A\,?\,B$ means A is neither smaller nor greater than B. $A\,*\,B$ means A is neither greater nor equal to B. $A\,\,\,\,B$ means A is not smaller than B. Now in each of the following questions assuming the given statements to be true, find which of the two conclusions I and II given below then is/are definitely true? Give answer (a) if only conclusion I is true. Give answer (b) if only conclusion II is true. Give answer (c) if either conclusion I or II is true. Give answer (d) if neither conclusion I nor II is true. Give answer (e) if both conclusions I and II are true. • Statements: $M\N,$ • $G\text{ }\text{ }H,$ $N\text{ }?\text{ }H$ Conclusions I. $M\text{ }\text{ }H$ • $H\text{ }\\text{}G$ • • Statements: $G\text{ }\text{ }M,$ • $N\text{ }\#\text{ }L,$ $G\text{ }*\text{ }L$ Conclusions I. $G\text{ }\text{ }N$ • $L\text{ }\\text{}M$ • • Statements: $P\text{ }\\text{}Q,$ • $R\text{ }\text{ }\,$ $P\text{ }*\text{ }R$ Conclusions I. $Q\text{ }*\text{ }R$ • $P\text{ }\#\text{ }S$ • • Statements: $U\text{ }\\text{}V,$ • $W\text{ }*\text{ }X,$ $U\text{ }\text{ }X$ Conclusions I. $VX$ • $V\text{ }*\text{ }X$ • • Statements: $K\text{ }\#\text{ }T,$ • $D\text{ }\\text{}F,$ $T\text{ }*\text{ }F$ Conclusions I. $K\text{ }*\text{ }D$ • $D\text{ }\\text{}T$ • Now, meaning of the symbols are: $\mathbf{\#}\to \,\,\le$ (either less than or equal to); $\\,\,\to\,\,>$ (greater than); $\mathbf{?}\to \,\,=$ (equal to); $\mathbf{*}\,\,\to \,\,<$ (less than); $\mathbf{}\,\,\to \,\,\ge$ (either greater than or equal to). • $M\,\,>\,\,N,\text{ }G\text{ }\ge \text{ }H,\text{ }N\,\,=\,\,H,$ • $\therefore \,\,\,M\text{ }>\text{ }H$, Hence I is not definitely true. There is no direct relation between M and F and hence II is not true. • $G\,\,\ge \,\,M,\text{ }N\,\,\le \,\,L,\text{ }G\,\,<\,\,L;\,\,\,\,\therefore$, G and N are not directly related, hence I is not true. • $P>Q,\text{ }R\,\,\ge \,\,S,\text{ }P\,\,<\,\,R,$ • Therefore from (i) and (iii) $R>P>Q$ or $Q<R$, Hence I is true P and S are not directly related and so, II is not true. • $U>V,\,\,W<X,\,\,U\,\,\ge \,\,X$ • $\therefore$ From (i) and (iii) $V\,\,<\,\,U\,\,\ge \,\,X$. It means either $U\text{ }>\text{ }X$, or $V\text{ }=\text{ }K$, or $U\text{ }<\text{ }X$. Hence more... #### Notes - Mathematical Operation Mathematical Operations Introduction: This is a new type of verbal reasoning question which is being frequently asked in the various competitive examination. Here, a mathematical symbols is damaged with another symbol to confuse and then you are asked to solve an equation using the new instructions with changed symbols. Example: • If + means -, - means $\mathbf{x},\,\,\div$ means + and $\mathbf{x}$ means $\,\mathbf{\div }$, then $\mathbf{15}-\mathbf{3}+\mathbf{10}\,\,\times \,\,\mathbf{5}\div \mathbf{5}$? • (a) 5 (b) 22 (c) 48 (d) 52 Ans. (c) Explanation: Using the correct symbols, we have: Given expression = $15\,\,\times \,\,3\,\,-\,\,10\,\,\div \,\,5\,\,+\,\,5\,\,=\,\,45-2\,\,+\,\,5\,\,=\,\,50-2=\text{ }48.$ • If x means +, + means $\mathbf{\div }$, - means $\mathbf{\times }$ and - means -, then $\mathbf{8}\,\,\mathbf{\times }\,\,\mathbf{7}\,\,\mathbf{-}\,\,\mathbf{8}\,\,\mathbf{+}\,\,\mathbf{40}\,\,\mathbf{\div }\,\,\mathbf{2=?}$ • (a) 1 (b) $\,7\frac{2}{5}$ (c) $\,8\frac{3}{5}$ (d) 44 Ans. (b) Explanation: Using the correct symbol, we have : Given expression = $8\,\,+\,\,7\,\,\times \,\,8\text{ }40\,\,\,\div \,\,\,2\,\,=\,\,8\,\,+\,\,7\times \frac{1}{5}\,\,-\,\,2\,\,\,\,=\,\,\,\,6+\frac{7}{6}\,\,=\frac{37}{5}\,\,=\,\,7\frac{2}{5}.$ • If ‘Q’ means ‘add to’, J means ‘multiply by’, T means ‘subtract from’ and K means ‘divided by’, then $\mathbf{30}\,\mathbf{K}\,\mathbf{2}\,\mathbf{Q}\,\mathbf{3}\,\mathbf{J}\,\mathbf{6}\,\mathbf{T}\,\mathbf{5=?}$ • (a) 18 (b) 28 (c) 31 (d) 103 Ans. (b) Explanation: Using the correct symbols, we have: Given expression $=\text{ }30\,\,\div \,\,2+3\,\,\times \,\,6\,\,-\,\,5\,\,=\,\,15\,\,+\,\,18\,\,-\,\,5\,\,=\,\,28.$ • If P means’ division’, T means ‘addition’, M means ‘subtract’ and D means ‘multiplication’, then what will be the value of the expression 12 M 12 D 28 P 7 T 15? • (a) - 30 (b) - 21 (c) 15 (d) 45 Ans. (b) Explanation: Using the correct symbols, we have: Given expression $=\text{ }12\text{ }-\text{ }12\text{ }\times \text{ }28\text{ }\div \text{ }7\text{ }+\text{ }15\text{ }=\text{ }12\text{ }-\text{ }12\text{ }\times \text{ }4\text{ }+\text{ }15$ $=12\,\,-\,\,48\,\,+\,\,15\,\,=\,\,27\,\,-\,\,48\,\,=-21.$ • If$ means +, # means -, @ means x and * means $\mathbf{\div }$, then what is the value of 16 \$ 4 @ 5 # 7 2 * 8?
•             (a) 25                                        (b) 27                        (c) 29                                        (d) 36 Ans.     (b)             Explanation: Using the correct symbols, we have:             Given expression = $16\text{ }+\text{ }4\text{ }\times \text{ }5\text{ }-\text{ }72\text{ }\div \text{ }8\text{ }=\text{ }16\text{ }+\text{ }20\text{ }-\text{ }9\text{ }=\text{ }36\text{ }-\text{ }9\text{ }=\text{ }27.$ Snap Test
• If ‘x’ stands for ‘addition’, ‘<’ for ‘subtraction’, ‘+’ for division’, ‘>‘ for ‘multiplication = for <, then which of the following alternatives is correct?
•             (a) $3\,\,\times \,\,4\,\,>\,\,2\,\,-\,\,9\,\,+\,\,3\,\,<\,\,3$                  (b) $5\,\,\times \,\,3\,\,<\,\,7\,\,\div \,\,8+4\,\,\times \,\,1$             (c) $5\,\,>\,\,2+2=10<4\,\,\times \,\,8$               (d) $3\,\,\times \,\,2\,\,<\,\,4\,\,\div \,\,16\,\,>\,\,2+4$ Ans.     (c)             Explanation: We get the statement as:             $5\,\,\times \,\,2\,\,\div \,\,2\,\,<\,\,10\,\,-\,\,4+8\,\,or\,\,5\,\,\times \,\,1\,\,<\,\,18\,\,-\,\,4\,\,or\,\,5<14$, which is true.
• If ‘-’ stands for ‘division’, ‘+’ for ‘multiplication’,’ +’ for ‘subtraction’ and Y for ‘addition’, then which one of the following equations is correct?
•            (a) $4\,\,\times \,\,5\,\,+\,\,9\,\,-\,\,3\,\,\div \,\,4\,\,=\,\,15$                                    (b) $4\,\,\times \,\,5\,\,\times \,\,9\,\,+\,\,3\,\,\div \,\,4\,\,=\,\,11$            more...

#### Notes - Sitting Arrangement

Sitting Arrangement   Introduction: Question of sitting Arrangement are based on a set of information containing certain conditions. Candidates are required to arrange the object either in a row or in a circle on the basis of given conditions. Information given in the question is presented in distorted form to create confusion and to test information's ability to analyse the information step by step in order to answer the question correctly. Following examples will help the students to understand this chapter clearly.   Example:
• Six person are sitting in a circle facing the centre of the circle. Parikh is between Babita and Narinder. Asha is between Chitra and Pankaj. Chitra is to the immediate left to Babita. Who is to the immediate right of Babita.
•             (a) Parikh                                   (b) Narinder             (c) Chitra                                   (d) None of these Ans.     (a)             Explanation: It is clear from figure Parikh is to the immediate right of Babita. • Six students - A, B, C, D, E and F are sitting in a ground. A and B have come from Delhi while other from Bangalore. D and F are tall and all others are short. A, C and D are girls while other are boys. Who is the taller girl hailing from Bangalore?
•             (a) C                                         (b) D             (c) E                                          (d) F Ans.     (d)             Explanation: Students hailing from Delhi – A, B             Student hailing from Bangalore – C, D, E, F             Girls – A, C, D             Boys – B, E, F             Taller Students – D, F             F is taller girl who hails from Bangalore.    Snap Test   In this type of questions some class regarding seating or placing sequence/linear or circular of same persons or items is given.   Example: Read the following information carefully and answer the questions given below:             (i)  A, B, C, D, E, F an G are sitting around a circle and are facing the centre.             (ii) G is second to the left of C, who is to the immediate left of F.             (iii) A is third to the left of E.             (iv) B is between D and E.
• Which one of the following is false?
•             (a) A is fourth to the right of E.             (b) G is to the immediate right of D.             (c) F is third to the right of D.             (d) B is second to the right of G.             (e) None of these Ans.     (c)
• Which one of the following is true?
•             (a) C is fourth to the left of B.             (b) A is to the immediate right of G.             (c) D is second to the left of E.             (d) B is second to the right of more...

#### Notes - Blood Relations

Blood Relations   Introduction: Blood relation test is information about blood relationship among the members of a family. In these questions, a chain process of two persons is given. On the basis of this the relations of the others are to be found out.   Types of Blood Relations             The relations may be divided into two types as given below:             (i)  Blood relation from paternal side.             (ii) Blood relation from maternal side.             Now, we will discuss both kind of relations one by one.   Blood Relation From Paternal Side             This type of blood relation can further be subdivided into three types:               (a) Past generations of father             Example: Great grandfather, great grandmother, grandfather, grandmother etc.               (b) Parallel generations of father             Example: Uncles (Brothers of father), aunts (Sisters of father) etc.               (c) Future generations of father             Example: Sons, daughters, grandsons, grand-daughters etc.   Blood Relation From Maternal Side             This type of blood relations can also be subdivided into three types:-               (a) Past generations of mother             Example: Maternal great grandfather, maternal great grandmother, maternal grandfather, maternal grandmother etc.               (b) Parallel generations of mother             Example: Maternal uncles, maternal aunts etc.               (c) Future generations of mother             Example: Sons, daughters, grandsons, grand-daughters etc.               Some Important Blood Relations
Son of father or mother   Brother
Daughter of father or mother   Sister
Brother of father   Uncle
Brother of mother   Maternal Uncle
Sister of father   Aunt
Sister of Mother   Aunt
Father of father   Grandfather
Father of father of father   Great grandfather
Father of grandfather   Great grandfather
Mother of father   Grandmother
Mother of mother of father   Great grandmother
Mother of grandmother   Great grandmother
Father of mother   Maternal Grandfather
Father of father of mother   Great Maternal grandfather
Father of maternal grandmother   Great Maternal grandfather
Mother of mother   Maternal grandmother
Mother of mother of mother   Great Maternal grandmother more...

#### Notes - Direction Sense Test

Direction Sense Test   Concept of Direction: In general we make our concept of direction after seeing the position of the Sun. It is an universal truth that Sun rises in the East and goes down in the West. Thus, when we stand facing sunrise our front is called East, and our back is called west. At this position our left hand is in the northward and the right hand is in the southward. Let us see the following direction map to make the concept more clear.   Direction Map: Note: On paper North is always on the top while South is always at the bottom.              Concept of Turn            Left turn       =  Anti clockwise turn            Right turn     =   Clockwise turn   Let us understand it through pictorial presentation:              (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Important Points Regarding Directions
• If our face is towards North, then after left turn our face will be towards West while after right turn it will be towards East.
• If our face is towards South, then after left turn our face will be towards East and after right turn it will be towards West.
• If our face is towards East, then after left turn our face will be towards North and after right turn it will be towards South.
• If our face is towards West, then after left turn our face will be towards South and after right turn it will be towards North.
• If our face is towards North-West, then after left turn our face will be towards South-West and after right turn it will be towards North-East.
• If our face is towards South-West, then after left turn our face will be towards South-East and after right turn it will be towards North-West.
• If our face is towards South-East, then after left turn our face will be towards North-East and after right turn it will be towards South-West.
• If our face is towards North East, then after left turn our face will be towards North West and after right turn it will be towards South East.
Example:
• A dog runs 20 metre towards East and turns right, runs 10 metre and turns to right, runs 9 metre and again turns to left, runs 5 metre and then turns to left, runs 12 metre and finally turns more...

• #### Notes - Syllogism

Syllogism   Introduction: Items based on Logical Reasoning are indispensable feature of all competitive examinations these days to test a candidate’s basic intelligence and aptitude. Syllogism is an important section of logical reasoning and hence a working knowledge of its rules is required on the part of the candidate. The term syllogism means inference or deduction drawn from the given statements.   The questions of syllogism can be solved with the help of Venn-diagrams and some rule devised with the help of analytical ability. Some people are of the opinion that Venn-diagram can be of great use for solving questions of syllogism. No doubt a few questions can be solved with the help of Venn-diagrams but van-diagrams alone do not help the students to solve variety of questions of syllogism. Even common sense also will not be much help in working      out certain working out certain difficult type of questions. Only the basic concepts and rules, which have a bearing   on reasoning faculty could alone help. We have discussed these rule with illustrations throughout the chapter. To proceed further for the study of rules, we must first know some terminology used in syllogism.   Proposition Proposition, also know a premises, is a grammatical sentence which comprises a subject, a Predicate and a copula. A subject is that which affirms or denies a fact. Predicate is a terms which states something about a subject and copula establishes relationship between the subject and the predicate.   Example:        I.    All II.   No III. Some Classification of Propositions             A proposition can mainly be divided into three categories: (a)       Categorical Proposition: In categorical propositions, there exists a relationship between the subject and the predicate without any condition. It means predicate is either affirmation or denial of the subject unconditionally.            Examples:        I.  All cups are plates.                                             II. No Girl is boy.   (b)      Hypothetical Proposition: In a hypothetical proposition, relationship between subject and predicate is asserted conditionally.            Examples:        I.  If it rains, he will not come                                            II. If he comes, I will accompany him.   (c)       Disjunctive Proposition: In a disjunctive proposition, the assertion is of alteration.            Examples:        I.  Either he is honest or he is loyal.                                            II. Either he is educated or he is illiterate.            Keeping in view the existing pattern of syllogism in competitive examinations we are concerned only with the categorical type of proposition.   Types of Categorical Proposition Categorical propositions have been classified on the basis of quality and quantity of the propositions. Quality denotes whether the proposition is affirmative or more...

#### Notes - Diagrammatic Puzzles

Diagrammatic Puzzles   In these problems one has to count the geometrical figures in a given complex figure. A little bit of systematic approach is needed to get the correct number of the asked figure. The shape of geometrical figures must be clear in mind.              Example: 1.         How many triangles are there in the figure given below? (a) 11                           (b) 12            (c) 9                              (d) 10 Ans.    (b)            Explanation: The main triangle is: ABC - i.e. –1 triangle the simplest triangles are: ABE, AED, EBF, EDC and EFC i.e. -5 triangles                                               The triangle divided into two parts are: ABF, ABD, AEC and EBC i.e. - 4 triangles                                           Other triangles are: AFC and DBC i.e. - 2 triangles                         So, the total number of triangles is $1+5+4+2=12$ 2.        The maximum number of squares in the figure is                                               (a) 9                            (b) 10                                  (c) 13                          (d) 14 Ans.    (d)            Explanation: The main square is ABCD i.e. - 1 square. The simplest squares are AMEF, MNFG, NBGH, EFU,                          FGJK, GHKL, IJCO, JKOP and KLDP i.e. - 9 squares                        Other squares are: ANIK, MBJL, EGCP and FHOD i.e. - 4 squares                                                        So, the total number of squares is $1+9+4=14$ more...

#### Notes - Complete of Incomplete Pattern

Complete of Incomplete Pattern   Introduction: This pattern are developed to judge your ability to comprehend geometric figures and diagrams. There also test your skills in perceiving the structure of a design and identifying the part missing in the main figure from the answer choices given, in the given figure a portion is left blank or incomplete. In this type of problems, a figure or a matrix, containing a set of figures following a particular sequence or pattern is given, in which a part, generally a quarter is left blank. This problem figure is followed by four alternative figures. The candidate is required to select the one which best fits into the blank space of problem figure so as to complete the original pattern              Example: 1.         Which one of the alternative figures will complete the figure pattern?                                     Pattern Ans.    (b)                                               Alternative figures              (a) (b) (c) (d) Ans.    (b)                                       Explanation: Observe that this figure has a square, a circle in the center and diagonal lines radiating from the circle. So, the complete figure will look like this: 2.        Which one of the alternative figures will complete the figure pattern? Ans.    (a)                                    Alternative figures              (a) (b) (c) (d) Explanation: Observe that in this figure the centre points of the circles are joined by straight lines. The line ends are split into three. Two parallel lines inside each circle are touching the striaght lines. So, the complete figure will look like this: 3.        Which one of the alternative figures will complete the figure pattern?                          Pattern more...

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