Current Affairs 9th Class

  The Process of Community Planning for Disaster   IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS            
  • Community Planning: A forward planning process which identifies human and material resources and puts in place potential response system.
  • Contingency Planning Exercise: A forum and opportunity for all sections of the society to participate in the contribution to the planning process.
  • Village Disaster Management Committee: Formed in each village, it is responsible for initiating disaster preparedness activities.
  • Resource Mapping: It focuses on the locally available resources and assets that can be utilised for building the capabilities of the community during and after disasters.
  • Mock drills: A series of actions usually tried out as a dummy exercise according to a-set plan.
  • BDO: Block Development Officer.
  • SHC: Self Help Group.
  • PHC: Primary Health Centre.
  • VDMC: Village Disaster Management Committee.
  • PRA: Participatory Rural Appraisal.
  • SOPs: Standard Operating Procedures

  •   Preventing Common Man-Made Disasters   IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS                      
  • Combustible material: Materials which are able to catch fire, g., flammable liquids or gases
  • Arson: The criminal act of deliberately setting fire.
  • Biological weapons: Preserving and releasing germs of deadly diseases like small-pox, anthrax jaundice, plague etc. to pollute water and air.
  • Chemical weapons: Misuse of poisonous chemicals for distinctive purposes, g., poisoning people, animals and water resources.
  • Dirty bomb: Crude nuclear bomb.
  • Nuclear Explosion: A 'blast' like mushroom cloud which can cause instant blindness if viewed.
  • Nuclear energy: Energy obtained by using radioactive elements by nuclear fusion.
  • Terrorism: It is a violent, forceful and unlawful method to achieve desired goals.
  • Terrorist activities: Organised violence to secure personal/political ends. It causes blood-shed and distinction.

  •                     Becoming a Disaster Manager Understanding Key Terms     IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS  
  • Hazard: It is a dangerous condition, natural or man-made, that cause injury, loss of life or damage to property.
  • Socio-natural hazard: It is caused both by nature and man, e.g., flooding may be increased through landslide.
  • Vulnerability: It is the extent to which a community can be affected by the impact of a disaster.
  • Risk: It is the probability of harmful consequences or expected losses.
  • Cyclone: It is a storm and develops when a low pressure area in the atmosphere is surrounded by high pressure. Cyclones are associated with strong winds, heavy rainfall and tidal waves.
  • Storm Surge: When the water is pushed towards the shore by the force of winds swirling around the cyclone,
  • Terrorism: It is violent, forceful and unlawful means to achieve desired goals.
  • Multi-hazard Zone: Some areas are exposed to many hazards like coastal regions may experience floods, cyclones, tsunamis, earthquakes etc.
  • Community: People who line together in urban area or in a village. They have common way of life.
  • Chemical Disaster: These are caused by industrial accidents, irresponsible handling of hazardous chemicals. Poisonous gases spread easily and cause widespread devastation.
  • WMD: Weapons of Mass Destruction.

  • Components of Disaster Management IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS
  • PRRP: Preparedness, Response, Recovery, Prevention.
  • Response: Measures taken in anticipation during and after a disaster to ensure that the effects are minimised.
  • Recovery: Measures which help disaster affected communities to restore emotional and economic well-being.

  •               Introduction to Disaster Risk Management Understanding Disaster Mitigation  
  • Community contingency funds: Disaster management puts aside a certain amount of money contributed by the community for use in emergencies.
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  • Incentives and financial framework: Government grants or subsidies help to persuade commercial and other instructions to include mitigation measures in building and construction work.
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  • Recovery: Measures which help disaster affected communities to restore emotional and economic well-being.

  • Specific Hazards and Mitigation IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS  
  • Sudden onset hazards: Earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, landslides, floods, cloud burst, tropical cyclones, avalanches.
  • Slow onset hazards: Famine, drought, pest infestation, environmental degradation, desertification.
  • Industrial/technological disasters: Fire, explosion, chemical leakage/spillage, system failures.
  • Multi-hazard zones: Some areas are exposed to many hazards like coastal areas may experience floods, cyclones, earthquakes etc.
  • Tremor: Shaking of the earth's surface.
  • Epicenter: The place on the surface of the earth which is the center of the earthquake.
  • Richter scale: A scale which measures the magnitude of an earthquake.
  • Modified Mercalli Scale: A scale which measures the intensity of an earthquake.
  • Seismic zone: An area prone to earthquakes.
  • Seismologists: Scientists who study all aspects of earthquake.
  • Tsunami: A seismic sea wave or destructive tidal wave generated by underwater earthquake.
  • Cyclone: It is a storm and develops when a low pressure area in the atmosphere is surrounded by high pressure. Cyclones are associated with strong winds, heavy rains, tidal waves etc.
  • Hurricane: Storms with violent winds in the Atlantic ocean.
  • DWS: Disaster Warning System.
  • Typhoons: Storms like cyclones in the Pacific Ocean.
  • Willie Willie: Storms like cyclones in Australia.
  • Storm Surge: Seawaves water is pushed towards the shore by the force of winds swirling around cyclone.
  • Arid region: Areas which receive scanty rainfall, dry areas with very little vegetation.
  • Droughts: Acuter shortage of water, food, fodder due to scanty rainfall and scarcity of water.
  • Water stress: When the demand for water exceeds the available amount or when poor quality restricts its use.
  • Aquifer: Water bearing formation that stores or transmits water, such as wells, tube-wells and springs. These water bearing formations are capable of providing water in sufficient quantity.
  • Drip-irrigation: A common irrigation method where pipes/tubes filled with water slowly drip into crops. Less water is lost to evaporation and is useful in dry areas.
  • Groundwater: Water obtained from the depth of the earth, of more than 15 m. It is obtained through tube-wells. It is recharged by rainfall.
  • Rainwater harvesting: It is a technique of recharging and increasing of underground water by storing rain water and allowing it to percolate in the earth’s surface.

  •   DEMOCRATIC RIGHTS   IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS  
  • Begar.  Forced labour. The practice of working free for landlords or other powerful people.
  • Constitutional Remedies. Constitutional means of removing or redressing grievances. A settlement through courts.
  • Fundamental Rights. These are the basic human rights which are given lo every citizen in democracy for the development of their personality. These rights are guaranteed by the Constitution.
  • Justiciable.  A case which can be examined in a court of law.
  • Preventive Detention. Taken into custody by the police on grounds of fear of breach of the peace.
  • Writs.  A written document by which a court asks to do something. Under the Right of Constitutional Remedies, the court issues five types of writs called quo warranto, habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition and certiorari.
  • Rights.  Rights are the reasonable claims of persons recognized by society and sanctioned by law.
  • Amnesty International. It is an independent international organization of volunteers who campaign for human rights. It highlights violation of human rights all over the world.
  • Claim.  A demand for legal or moral entitlements which a person makes on fellow citizens, society or the government.
  • Covenant.  A promise made by individuals, groups or countries to uphold a rule or principle.
  • Dalit. A person belonging to a low caste also known as Scheduled Castes and Depressed classes.
  • Ethnic Group. A group of people who share a common ancestry. They are bound together by common cultural practices, religious beliefs and historical memories.
  • Human Trafficking. Buying or selling of men, women or children for immoral purposes.
  • Summons.  An order issued by a court asking a person to appear before it.

  •  THE STORY OF VILLAGE PALAMPUR   IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS  
  • Labour refers to the people who are available for work.
  • Physical Capital. The variety of inputs required during the process of production.
  • Fixed Capital. That part of physical capital which can be used in production over many years and cannot be altered in short period, e.g., tools, machines and buildings.
  • Working Capital. That part of physical capital which is used up in production, e.g., raw material and money in hand.
  • Human Capital. The physical capital cannot deliver goods in the absence of adequate trained human Hence investment is made in human beings for their education, training and health. Such an investment is termed as human capital. Human capital is the stock of skills and productive knowledge embodied in them.                                                                             
  • Multiple Cropping. The practice of growing more than one crop on a piece of land during a year.
  • Yield.  Agriculture yield is measured as crop produced on a given piece of land during a single season.
  • Non-farm activity refers to the activities in a village other than farming. This includes activities like manufacturing, transportation, shop-keeping etc.
  • Green Revolution. The large increase in agricultural production after 1967-68 due to adoption of New Agricultural Strategy which implied a simultaneous use of better and modern agricultural inputs.
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      PEOPLE AS RESOURCE   IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS  
  • Human Resource. A way of referring to a country's working people in terms of their existing abilities and skills. It emphasises their ability to contribute to the Gross National Product.
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  • Investment.  The existing stock of physical capital assets such as machinery, buildings, plant and equipment.
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  • Productivity.  The output of goods and services compared to the inputs used. It is a measure of efficiency of factors of production.
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  • Economic activities. The activities which are remunerated or for which the person performing them is paid money. They add value to the national income.
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  • Market activities. Those economic activities which involve remuneration to anyone who performs it for pay or profit. It includes production of goods or services including government service.
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  • Non-market activities. These activities are the production activities for self-consumption. These can be consumption and processing of primary product and own account production of fixed assets.
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  • GNP.  It is the total value of goods and services produced in a year by a country's nationals including the net earnings and profits from capital held abroad.
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  • Educated unemployed. The expansion of education rendered to produce large number of fresh graduates at a faster rate than jobs created by an underdeveloped country. This has caused a situation called educated unemployed.
  • Non-economic activities. The activities for which the person performing it is not paid. Their work is not accounted in the national income of the country.
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  • Human Capital Formation. When the existing human resource is further developed by becoming more educated and healthy, human capital formation takes place. It adds to the productive power of the country just like the physical capital formation.
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  • Unemployment.  The state in which a person is willing and able to work at prevailing wages but still does not get gainful work.
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  • Disguised unemployment. The word 'disguised' means concealed or hidden. Disguised unemployment is hidden because men and women are working. This form of unemployment occurs when more people are working on a piece of farm than are actually required.
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  • Seasonal unemployment. This type of unemployment occurs when people are not able to find employment for some part of the year. It is typical of the agricultural sector due to its seasonal nature.
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  • Literacy Rate. Percentage of people above a certain age, who can with understanding, both read and write short simple statements in everyday life.
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  • Infrastructure.  The physical framework required to provide different types of services.
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  • Infant Mortality Rate. The number of deaths of infants per thousand of births in a year.
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  • Birth Rate. The number of live births in a year per thousand of mid-year population.
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  • Death Rate. The number of deaths in a year per thousand of mid-year population.
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  • Sarva Siksha Abhiyan. It is a time more...

  • Poverty as a Challenge IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS  
  • Poverty. It is a state in which people do not have sufficient income to fulfill the basic necessities of life like food, clothing and shelter.
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  • Absolute poverty refers to the total number of people living below poverty line.
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  • Relative poverty refers to poverty of people in relation to other people, regions or nations.
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  • Poverty line is the level of income which divides the population as poor and non-poor. It is drawn on the basis of minimum consumption expenditure.
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  • International poverty line is defined by World Bank as an income of less than $1 per day.
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  • Social exclusion is the state of living in very poor conditions and excluded from facilities, benefits and opportunities that others enjoy.
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  • Vulnerability describes that level of poverty when people have a greater probability of being adversely affected than other people at the time of natural disasters.
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  • Economic growth is the term which defines an increase in real output of a country.



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