Ecology & Biodiversity
OF ENVIRONMENT AND FORESTS
·Conservation and survey of flora, fauna,
forests and wildlife
·Prevention and control of pollution
·Afforestation and regeneration of degraded
·Protection of the environment
·Ensuring the welfare of animals
?Natural Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement
on Environment and Development, 1992
?National Forest Policy, 1988
?Policy Statement on Abatement of Pollution, 1992
?National Environment Policy 2006
Ministry also serves as the nodal agency in the country for the following:
?United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
?South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme
?International Centre for Integrated Mountain
?United Nations Conference on Environment and
Ministry is also entrusted with the issues relating to the following multilateral
?Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
?Global Environment Facility (GEF)
Premium National Organisations Under
Botanical Survey of India
carrying out taxonomic and floristic studies on
wild plant resources of the country
Zoological Survey of India
Kolkata with 16 regional stations
undertaking survey, exploration and research leading
to the advancement
of our knowledge on the exceptionally rich faunal
diversity of the country
Forest Survey of India
·The earliest known tool for computation was
the Abacus. It was developed in China.
·Blaise Pascal invented the second real
mechanical calculator called Pascaline.
·Charles Babbage is considered as the 'father
of computer' because he invented difference engine in 1822 and then analytical
engine, which can store the information on punch cards, in 1837.
·Alan Turing is regarded as father of 'modem
characteristics of a computer are as follows:
·Speed: The computer uses the
electronic pulses, the speed of those pulses is virtually instantaneous and process
the inputs in microseconds, nanoseconds or piccosenconds.
·Storage: It is also known as memory.
It consists of computer components and recording media used to retain digital data.
·Accuracy: Computers are error free
and most of the errors are due to human negligence.
·Versatility: Computers are
multi-tasking in nature.
·Automation: It is a field where the
computer itself executes all tasks automatically when inputs are provided to
of a Computer
·No Self Intelligence: Though a
computer is programmed to work efficiently, fast and accurately, yet it is
programmed by human beings to do so.
·Decision Making: The concept of
artificial intelligence shows that the computer is the decision maker. But it
is still dependent on instructions provided by human being.
·Self Care: Computer cannot take care
of itself like a human being. It is dependent on human beings for this purpose.
·Retrieval of Memory: Computers can
retrieve data very fast but this technique is linear. Human mind does not
follow this rule.
·Sensation: Computers cannot feel like
a human being.
Generations of Computer
Generation (Vacuum Tube) 1940-56
·Technology: Use of vacuum tubes in
·Internal Operating Speed (IOS):
·Operating Systems (OS): Batch
·Languages: Machine code and electric
·Examples: UNIVAC-I, IBM-701
Generation (Transistor) 1957-63
·Technology: Use of transistor and
·OS: Batch processing
·Languages: Assembly language, high more...
Biotechnology and Genetics·Biotechnology,
generally speaking, is any technique that is used to make or modify the
products of living organisms in order to improve plants or animal or to develop
useful microorganisms.·In modem terms,
biotechnology has come to mean the use of cell and tissue culture, cell fusion,
molecular biology, and in particular, recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
technology to generate unique organisms with new trait or organisms that have the
potential to produce specific products.·The origin of
biotechnology can be traced back to prehistoric times, when microorganisms were
already used for processes like fermentation. Although a molecular biologist
may consider cloning of DNA to be the most important event in the history of
biotechnology, the latter has actually been rediscovered in 1970s for the third
time during the last century.·In 1920s,
Clostridium acetobutylicum was used by Chaim Weizmann for converting starch
into butanol and acetone; the latter was an essential component of explosives
during World War I. This raised hopes for commercial production of useful
chemicals through biological processes, and may be considered as the first
rediscovery of biotechnology in the last century.·Similarly, during
World War II (in 1940s), the production of penicillin (as an antibiotic
discovered by Alexander Flemming in 1929) on a large scale from cultures of
Penicillium notatum, marked the second rediscovery of biotechnology. This was
the beginning of an era of antibiotic research.·The third rediscovery of biotechnology is
its recent reincarnation in the form of recombinant - DNA technology, which led
to the development of a variety of gene technologies and is thus considered to
be the greatest scientific evolution of the last century.
·Although the term sounds contemporary,
biotechnology is not new Over 9,000 years ago, people discovered that
microorganisms could be used to make bread, brew alcohol, and produce cheese.
Although this process of fermentation was not thoroughly understood at that time,
its use still constitutes a traditional application of biotechnology
·What is new, however, is the extent of applications
and sophistication of biotechnology techniques currently employed. Researchers
car manipulate living organisms and transfer genetic material between organisms.
Genetic engineering, the specific modification or transfer of genetic material,
underlies modem biotechnological innovations
These current applications of biotechnology are
predominantly practised in the fields of agriculture and medicine. Modem
technique- allow for the production of new and improved foods. Virus resistant crop
plants and animals have been developed and advances in insect resistance have
been made. Biotechnology applications vaccines for malaria, and improved ways
of producing insulin. Diagnostic tests for detecting serious diseases such as
hereditary cancers and Huntington's chorea have been developed as well more...
(Renewable and Non ? Renewable)
development in India dates back to the pre-Independence era with the
commissioning of electricity supply in Darjeeling during 1897. It was followed
by the commissioning of a hydro power station at Sivasamudram in Karnataka
during 1902. Through private sector controlled power supply in the pre Independence
era, formation of state electricity boards during Five- Year Plans and setting
up of multipurpose projects with thermal, hydro and nuclear power stations
systematic growth of power supply industry in the country took place.
India is the fifth largest producer and consumer of
electricity in the world. It produces 1,006 Terawatt Hours (TWh) of power which
has grown at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.5 per cent.
The Indian power sector is one of the most diversified
sectors in the world. The generation of power in India is done using main
commercial sources like coal, lignite, natural gas, oil, hydro and nuclear
power. Other viable non- conventional sources include wind, solar, agriculture
and domestic waste. The Government of India targeted capacity addition of 89 GW
under the 12th Five-Year Plan (2012-17). It plans to add close to 100 GW under
the 13th Five-Year Plan (2017-22). Investments of around US$ 223.9 billion have
been planned for the power sector during the 12th Five-Year Plan (2012-17). There
is a target of generating 10,000 MW of power through solar energy by 2017.
Phase I of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission has been very successful,
wherein 1,685 MW of solar power was generated. The government of India has
permitted an FDI up to 100 per cent under the automatic route for the projects
of electricity generation (except atomic energy), transmission distribution and
power trading. The Ministry of Power (MOP) is the nodal authority for the
development of power resources in the country. The Central Electricity
Authority (CEA) assists the Ministry in technical matters. An Electricity
Policy was developed by the ministry which sets the tune for generation of
electricity in the country.
Energy Sector in India
and large, the Indian energy sector has been regulated and owned by government
agencies and organisations, though of late the entry of private sector has
enhanced the scope for greater power generation.
basic institutional structure comprises of a nodal ministry at the centre for each
energy supply sector, which is the primary agency for policy formulation support
in decision-making, and implementation by state governments; state- level nodal
agencies, public sector undertakings, and technical and research institutions.
The Union Government plays a dominant role in the energy sector and it is
mainly due to the fact that the subject energy has been placed in the
concurrent list of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution of India.
India's Energy Policy
Energy Policy of India speaks about the goals with respect to short medium and
long terms, which are as follows:
and Communication Technology
INFORMATICS CENTRE (NIC)
·Information Technology (IT) has its roots in
the strategic infection propagated by the success of India's export-led
software industry. The Information Technology industry in India has gained its
·The National Informatics Centre (NIC) is a
premier organisation in the field of Information Technology (IT) in India. It
provides state-of-the-art solutions to the information management and decision
support requirements of the government and corporate sectors.
INFORMATION SYSTEM NETWORK (BTISNET)
was established on the basis of database and network organization by the
Department of Biotechnology. BTISNET is headquartered in New Delhi.
·NICNET was designed and implemented by NIC
using state-of-the- art satellite-based computer communication technology. It
ensures extremely cost effective and reliable implementation.
·The National Internet Exchange of India
(Nixi) is the official meeting point of the Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
in India to provide neutral ISP services. Its main aim is to facilitate
exchange of domestic Internet traffic between the peering ISP members. This
enables more efficient use of international bandwidth, saving foreign exchange.
TECHNOLOGY PARKS OF INDIA (STPI)
·It is a society established in 1991 by the
Government of India, under the Ministry of Communications and Information
Technology. Its objective is to setup and manage infrastructure facilities and
provide services like technology assessment and professional training.
E-GOVERNANCE PLAN (NeGP)
·NeGP is a plan of the Government of India to make all the
government services available to the citizens of India via electronic media.
It includes all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching,
including education technology.
The provision of government services available on the Internet is known as e-Government.
It is a non-profit organisation that links together the world's democratic
members of Parliament and Congress on a single forum.
AND LIBRARY NETWORK (INFLIBNET)
·It is an autonomous Inter University Centre
(IUC) of the University Grants Commission (UGC) of India. It is involved in modernizing
university libraries in India and connecting them.
·It is a library in which collections are
stored in digital formats and are accessible via computers. A digital library
is a type of information retrieval system.
·It is a media and content that uses a combination
of different content forms. This contrasts with media that uses only
rudimentary computer displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed
or hand-produced material.
·Space Technology·The Indian space programme began in 1962 by
the setting up of Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR).
·Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
was set up in 1969 with its headquarters at Bengaluru.
·The Government of India established the
Department of Space in 1972 to promote development and application of space science
and technology for socio-economic benefits.
·Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching
station was set up in the year 1963 near Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala to
provide launching facilities.
·Sriharikota Range (SHAR) is another
satellite-launching station. It was set up at Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh.
SHAR has been renamed as Satish Dhawan Space Centre.
·India launched its second satellite named Bhaskara
I on 7 June 1979 from Baikonur (former USSR).
·The first Indian Remote Sensing Satellite
was launched on 17 March 1988.
·APPLE was the first Indian communication
satellite. It was launched on 19 June 1981 from Kourou in French Guyana (South
America). It was the first Indian satellite to be placed in the geostationary
·India demonstrated development of space
applications for communication, broadcasting and remote sensing. It designed and
developed experimental satellites viz. Aryabhata, Bhaskara, APPLE and Rohini
including experimental Satellite Launch Vehicles SLV-3 and ASLV.
·India successfully sent its spacecraft Chandrayaan-I
to Moon in November 2008. It joined a special club of four countries to send a probe
to the lunar surface.
·100th Space Mission of India took-off
in September 2012 whenIndia's main workhorse Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
(PSLV) successfully placed French SPOT-6 and Japanese PROITERES satellites in
the designated orbits.
·Aryabhata, the first Indian space satellite,
was launched on 19 April 1975.
·Indian National Satellite (INSAT) System:
Commissioned in 1983, INSAT is a multipurpose satellite system for
telecommunications, television broadcasting, meteorology, disaster warning,
search and rescue.
·Tele-education programme of ISRO,
through INSAT/ GSAT series of satellites, supports distance education.
·Telemedicine programme is an innovative
process to deliver the health care services to the remote, distant and
under-served regions of the country.
SPACE RESEARCH CENTRES
·Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram.
It is a centre for development of technologies for launching satellites and its
·ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bengaluru.
It is the centre for developing satellite technology that includes
implementation of satellite systems for various missions such as scientific, more...
Research and TechnologyDefence Research and Technology·Defence Research and Development
Organisation (DRDO) was established in 1958 to provide a solid base to the
national security system.
·DRDO formulates and executes programmes of
scientific research. design and develops new weapons required by the armed
·Integrated Guided Missile Development
Programme (IGMDP) was launched in 1983 with the aim of achieving
self-sufficiency in missile development and production. Currently, it comprises
of five core missile programmes - the strategic Agni ballistic missile, the tactical
Prithvi ballistic missile, the Akash and Trishul surface-to-air missiles and
the Nag anti-tank guided missile.
Technology·India?s journey to atomic energy research
started with the establishment of the Atomic Energy Commission on 10 August
1948, under the chairmanship of Dr. Homi J. Bhabha. Subsequently, the
Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was established in 1954 for implementation of
atomic energy programmes.
·Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC)
was established in 1957 at Trombay (Maharashtra). It is India's largest atomic
research Centre. Apsara (India's first atomic nuclear reactor include) is
·BARC's research centres: Variable Energy
Cyclotron Centre (Kolkata), High Altitude Research Lab (Gulmarg), Nuclear
Research Lab (Kashmir) and Seismic Station (Gauribidanur, Karnataka).
·Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research
was established in 1971 and is located at Kalpakkam (Chennai). The centre
carries out research and development of indigenous technology of sodium cooled fast
·Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT)
was established in 1984 and is located at Indore. The centre carries out
research and development of high technology in fields like lasers, fusion and
·Pokhran Tests: India has so far conducted
6 nuclear test explosions. The first nuclear explosion was conducted on 18 May
1974 at Pokhran in Rajasthan. The others were conducted on 11 and 13 May 1998
at Pokhran range only.
Nuclear Power Stations
Nuclear Power Stations
PASSAGE ON YOGA
Spirituality is not a path for the
weak-hearted. Swami Vivekananda has said, I need lions and not sheep." He
said so because spirituality is a platform where one has to constantly work on
oneself. Every moment we work on ourselves to make sure we reach the ultimate
aim of enlightenment. It's a journey that we take from what we are for the
outside world to what we are really inside.The journey can be started only after
the rite of initiation is over. And when it comes to spiritual realm, this rite
of initiation is in the form of the five fundamental qualities that is espoused
by Patanjali under the step of yama'. The primary elements of Patanjali's
Astanga Yoga, starting with yama, niyama etc., can be better appreciated and
actually realised by a few moments of daily meditation.The word yama5 has different
connotations and meanings. . In Sanskrit, it means 'regulation' or
'self-discipline', yama means to give up. It is actually giving up one's
desires, and all passions other than the passion for spiritual enlightenment.
It is disciplining one's mind and body so that it becomes strong and pure
enough to take in the whole of spiritual truth.In Hindu mythology, Yama is the god
of death. How is the god of death connected to the very first step of
spirituality? The answer lies in the right understanding of life itself. The
ending and beginning of life is all subjective. The beginning is when the soul
gets attached and the end is when the soul withdraws itself.The real secret is to die when you
are still alive. You have to go beyond your attachments and aspirations of your
present self and control your inner desires to realize what you really are.
Meditation is also called a process of conscious annihilation. But people get
sacred when they go deep into meditation, and they open their eyes immediately.
They are unaware of the real goal and are thus scared.Live as if you are going to die the
next moment. Though it sounds negative in the beginning, there is a deep wisdom
conveyed in the whole idea. This idea of the living dead is nothing but
transcending one's ego with love. And this in turn removes all the restriction
that was being placed in one's spiritual journey, thus leading to spiritual
enlightenment.PRECISYAMA-THE FIRST STEP TO SPIRITUALITYSpirituality suits people who are
strong-minded since it requires constant self-analysis. It's a path that begins
with rationality and ends in consciousness. This journey can begin only after
the the follower is initiated into the five qualities mentioned by Patanjali,
that starts with Yama. niyama etc. Yama is disciplining oneself, and to purify
one's mind. Yama is the cessation of attachment to life which can only take more...
1. Essay Writing
ANYONE CAN WRITE AN ESSAY!
Surprised? Don't be. With the right tools and average level of content, anyone can write an essay. And that's what we are going to give you-
THE RIGHT TOOLS
Before writing an essay, you need to know what an essay is, and what it isn't. Essay is not an illogical arrangement of ideas. It's not a haphazard array of sentences. It is a flow of ideas with a single idea- as the backbone; the other ideas complementing this single idea. And these set of ideas when set in a proper structure become a good essay.
All essays might look the same to an untrained eye, but they're not. There are different types of essays, according to the way in which the writer deals with the topic at hand. They are:"
Personal essays are what one may call writing from the heart. They have a personal touch and are often written in a conversational manner, and may be called an autobiographical non-fiction.
Narrative essays can be said to be closely related to personal essays in which we write from first person perspective. These are narrations of an event or a situation, generally a real-life experience.
Descriptive essays are closely related to narrative essays, but differentiated by the absence of first person perspective ('I'). These are descriptions of a person, place, object or even memory of special significance.
Expository essays are essays completely separated from the above-given types in that they completely avoid any reference to personal feelings. They are fully based on factual knowledge, and present the conclusion on the basis of facts, statistics and examples.
Analytical essays are a type of expository essays with personal analysis in addition. In this, the writer analyses the given data and presents a balanced view in the conclusion.
Persuasive essays are analytical essays with a strong emphasis on one's viewpoint, so as to persuade the reader to accept the writer's point of view or recommendation.
Argumentative essays are a stronger form of persuasive essays, but they differ in the fact that in it, the author presents his view in contrast to the other viewpoints that exist, while in persuasive essays, the author just gives his own viewpoint in the attempt to persuade. According to the topic and the context in which one is writing the essay, one can decide which type of essay one wants to write.
How to write an essay?
Now that we have dealt with the description and types of essay, we come to the most important part-how to write an essay.
All essays should have three parts-
Introduction is the part where one initiates the topic. It is an insight into what the writer is going to write in the following passages. While it should have more...