SSC General Science & Technology Science and Technology Notes - Space Technology

Notes - Space Technology

Category : SSC


Space Technology


·                     The Indian space programme began in 1962 by the setting up of Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR).

·                     Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was set up in 1969 with its headquarters at Bengaluru.

·                     The Government of India established the Department of Space in 1972 to promote development and application of space science and technology for socio-economic benefits.

·                     Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching station was set up in the year 1963 near Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala to provide launching facilities.

·                     Sriharikota Range (SHAR) is another satellite-launching station. It was set up at Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh. SHAR has been renamed as Satish Dhawan Space Centre.

·                     India launched its second satellite named Bhaskara I on 7 June 1979 from Baikonur (former USSR).

·                     The first Indian Remote Sensing Satellite was launched on 17 March 1988.

·                     APPLE was the first Indian communication satellite. It was launched on 19 June 1981 from Kourou in French Guyana (South America). It was the first Indian satellite to be placed in the geostationary orbit.

·                     India demonstrated development of space applications for communication, broadcasting and remote sensing. It designed and developed experimental satellites viz. Aryabhata, Bhaskara, APPLE and Rohini including experimental Satellite Launch Vehicles SLV-3 and ASLV.

·                     India successfully sent its spacecraft Chandrayaan-I to Moon in November 2008. It joined a special club of four countries to send a probe to the lunar surface.

·                     100th Space Mission of India took-off in September 2012 whenIndia's main workhorse Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) successfully placed French SPOT-6 and Japanese PROITERES satellites in the designated orbits.

·                     Aryabhata, the first Indian space satellite, was launched on 19 April 1975.

·                     Indian National Satellite (INSAT) System: Commissioned in 1983, INSAT is a multipurpose satellite system for telecommunications, television broadcasting, meteorology, disaster warning, search and rescue.

·                     Tele-education programme of ISRO, through INSAT/ GSAT series of satellites, supports distance education.

·                     Telemedicine programme is an innovative process to deliver the health care services to the remote, distant and under-served regions of the country.



·         Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram. It is a centre for development of technologies for launching satellites and its propulsion.

·         ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bengaluru. It is the centre for developing satellite technology that includes implementation of satellite systems for various missions such as scientific, technological and space-applications.

·         Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR Andhra Pradesh. It has been labelled as the main launching pad of ISRO. It has state-of-the-art facilities for solid propellant casting, static testing of solid motors, launch vehicles integration etc. It comprises telemetry tracking, command network and mission control centre.

·         Liquid Propulsion System Centre (LPSC) Thiruvananthapuram. It is a leading centre in the development of liquid and cryogenic propulsion technologies for launch vehicles and satellites.

·         Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad. It is engaged in the development of payloads for multiple space application satellites viz. communication, meteorological and remote sensing.

·         Development and Educational Communication Unit (DECU), Ahmedabad. It is involved in the conception, definition, planning, implementation and socio-economic evaluation to ensure innovative configuration for space applications.                          

·         ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command-Network (ISTRAC) Bengaluru. It extends mission support to low earth orbit satellites including launch vehicle missions.

·         Master Control Facility. MCF located at Hassan (Karnataka) and Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh) monitors and controls all the geo-stationary satellites of ISRO.

·         ISRO Inertial System Unit (IISU), Thiruvananthapuram. It is engaged in the development of resources for inertial sensors and systems.

·         National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA). It is primarily responsible for data acquisition and processing data dissemination for the satellite, aerial remote sensing including decision support system for disaster management.

·         Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad. It is a premier institute involved in multidisciplinary research in astronomy and astrophysics, earth and planetary science, space and basic science.

·         National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Gadanki (Andhra Pradesh). It is a premier institution for atmospheric research facilities like mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere, radar, LIDAR, etc.

·         Regional Remote Sensing Service Centres (RRSSC). There are five RRSSC centres established by the DOS at Bengaluru, Kharagpur, Jodhpur, Dehradun and Nagpur. These centres support various remote sensing tasks specific to regional and national level.

·         North-Eastern Space Application Centre (NESAC), Shillong. It is a joint initiative of Department of Space (DoS) and North Eastern Council to provide developmental assistance to the North Eastern region using space science and technology.

·         Antrix Corporation Limited, Bengaluru. It is the apex marketing institution under DoS. It has the access to the resources of Indian space industries.

·         Semi-Conductor Laboratory (SCL). It is entrusted with design and development of very large-scale integration (VLSI) systems including development of systems for telecommunication and space.



2016    Indian on May 23, 2016 successfully launched the first indigenously made Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), capable of launching satellites into orbit around earth and re-entering the atmosphere, from Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh.

2015    PSLV successfully put into orbit IRNSS-1D, the fourth satellite of the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) after its successful launch from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre.

2014    GSLV successfully places GSAT-14 into GTO. PSLV-C24 successfully launched IRNSS-1B, IRNSS from SDSCSHAR, Sriharikota.

PSLV-C23 successfully launched French earth observation Satellite-SPOT-7, and four co-passengers PSLV-C26, successful launched IRNCS-1C the third satellite of the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System from Sriharikota.

GSAT-15 successful launched by ARIANE-5 VA221

2013    PSLV-C20 launched Indo French Satellite SARAL with its smaller satellite, PSLV-C22 usefully launched IRNSS-1 A and India's first interplanetary Mission 70 planet Mars PSLV-25 from Sriharikota.

2012    PSLV-C19 launched RISAT-1 on April 26, 2012 (Successful).

2011   ? PSLV-C18 launched Megha-Tropiques, SRMSat, Vessel- Sat-1 and Jugnu on October 12, 2011 (Successful).

? PSLV-C17 successfully launches GSAT-12 from Sriharikota (July 15, 2011).

2010   ? GSLV-F06 was launched from Shriharikota on December 25, 2010.

? GSAT-5P could not be put in its orbit. The GSLV-F06 mission was not successful.

? PSLV-C15 successfully launches five Satellites - CARTOSAT-2B, ALSAT-2A, two nanosatellites - MLS-6.1 & 3.2 and a picosatellite - STUDSAT from Sriharikota on July 12, 2010.

2009    PSLV-C14 successfully launches seven Satellites OCEANSAT-2, four CUBESAT Satellites and two RUBIN-9 from Sriharikota. RISAT-2 and ANUSAT are launched successfully by PSLV-C12.

2003   PSLV-C11 successfully launches CHANDRAYAAN1 from Sriharikota.

PSLV-C9 successfully places CARTOSAT-2A, IMS-1 and 8 foreign nano satellites into their orbit. PSLV-C10 successfully launches TECSAR satellite under a commercial contract with Antrix Corporation.

2007    GSLV (GSLV-F04) with INSAT-4CR successfully launched from SDSC SHAR.

ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C8, successfully places into orbit Italian astronomical satellite, AGILE from Sriharikota.

2009    Second operational flight of GSLV (GSLV-F02) launched from SDSC SHAR with INSAT-4C on board. The mission was not successful.

2005    INSAT-4A launched successfully by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana.                                              

PSLV-C6, ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, successfully launches CARTOSAT-1 and HAMSAT satellites from Sriharikota.  

2004    The first operational flight of GSLV (GSLV-F01) successfully launched EDUSAT from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota.

2003    ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-05, successfully places RESOURCESAT-1 (IRS-P6) satellite into orbit. INSAT-3E is launched successfully by Ariane from Kourou French. Guyana. The second developmental launch of GSLV-D2 GSAT-2 on board takes place from Sriharikota. INSAT-3A launched successfully by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana.

2002    ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C4, is launched successfully launched KALPANA-1 on-board from Sriharikota. INSAT-3C is launched successfully by Ariane from kourou, French Guyana. 

2001    ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C3, successful places three satellites viz. Technology Experiment Satellite (TES) of ISRO, BIRD of Germany and PROBA of Belgium into their designated orbits. The first developmental flight of GSLV-D1 with GSAT-1 on-board is successfully done from Sriharikota.

1998    INSAT system capacity augmented with the readiness of INSAT- 2DT acquired from ARABSAT.

1997    INSAT-2D, the fourth satellite in the INSAT series is launched successfully. It finally becomes inoperable. (An in- orbit satellite, ARABSAT-1C was acquired and renamed INSAT-2DT in November 1997 to partly augment the INSAT system). PSLV with IRS-1D on board is placed in orbit in its first operational launch.

1996    Third developmental launch of PSLV with IRS-P3 on board is done successfully. Satellite gets placed in the polar sun-synchronous orbit.

1995    Successful launch of third operational Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, IRS-1C. INSAT-2C, the third satellite in the INSAT-2 series is launched successfully.

1994    Second developmental launch of PSLV takes place with IRS- P2 on board. Satellite successfully placed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. Fourth developmental launch of ASLV is successfully done with SROSS-C2 on board. Satellite placed in orbit successfully.

1993    First developmental launch of PSLV takes place with IRS-1E on board. Satellite could not be placed successfully in the orbit. INSAT-2B, the second satellite in the INSAT-2 series, launched.

1992    INSAT-2A, the first satellite of the second-generation INSAT series is launched successfully. Third developmental launch of ASLV takes place with SROSS-C on board. Satellite is placed in orbit successfully.

1991    Second operational Remote Sensing satellite, IRS-1B is launched successfully.

1990    INSAT-1D is successfully launched.

1988    INSAT-1C launch is abandoned in November 1989. Second developmental launch of ASLV takes place with SROSS-2 on board. Satellite could not be placed in the orbit. Successful launch of first operational Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, IRS-1A.

1987    First developmental launch of ASLV with SROSS-1 satellite on board. Satellite could not be placed in orbit.

1984    Indo-Soviet manned space mission.          

1983    INSAT-1B launched. Second developmental launch of SLV-3.       

RS-D2 placed in orbit.   

1982    INSAT-1A launched.     

1981    Bhaskara-II launched. APPLE, an experimental geostationary communication satellite successfully launched. RS-D1 placed in orbit. First developmental launch of SLV-3.

1980    Second experimental launch of SLV-3, Rohini satellite successfully placed in orbit.

1979    First experimental launch of SLV-3 with Rohini Technology payload on-board. Satellite could not be placed successfully in the orbit. Bhaskara-I, an experimental satellite for earth observations is launched.

1977    Satellite Telecommunication Experiments Project (STEP) is carried out successfully.

1975    Successful conduct of Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE).


1975    ISRO's first Indian Satellite, Aryabhata is launched, ISRO becomes government institution.

1972    Air-bome remote sensing experiments successfully conducted.          


1972    Space Commission and Department of Space set up. ISRO is brought under the DOS.

1969    Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is founded under the Department of Atomic Energy.

1968    TERLS dedicated to the United Nations.

1967    Satellite Telecommunication Earth Station set up at Ahmedabad.

1965    Space Science & Technology Centre (SSTC) established in Thumba.

1963    First sounding rocket launched from TERLS.

1962    Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) formed by the Department of Atomic Energy and work on establishing Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) started.  

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