Components of food
Category : 6th Class
The food, we eat, are composed of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water, and roughage. Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates provides energy to the body. Rice, wheat, potato, sugar, bread are rich sources of carbohydrates.
|Carbohydrates||Rice, wheat, potato, sugar, honey etc.||It gives energy to the body|
Fats: Fats also provides energy to the body. Butter, ghee, cheese, oil, egg yolk, are rich sources of fats.
|Fats||Butter, ghee, cheese, oil egg yolk etc.||It also gives energy to the body|
Note: Fats give more energy than that of carbohydrates.
Proteins: Protein makes new cells in the body and helps in growth. It also repairs the damaged parts of the body. Proteins are, therefore, called body building materials. Milk, cheese, pulses, meat, fish, eggs, groundnut, soya beans, barley are rich sources of proteins.
|Proteins||Milk, cheese, pulses, meat, fish, eggs etc.||1. It makes new cells in the body and helps in growth 2. It repairs the damaged parts of the body|
Vitamins: Vitamins are essential for normal growth, good eyesight, healthy teeth, healthy bones and proper functioning of the organ systems of our body. It also resist the body against diseases. Some important vitamins are vitamin.
A, vitamin vitamin vitamin vitamin vitamin C, vitamin D and vitamin K.
|Vitamin A||Milk, butter, carrot, green vegetables, mango, papaya etc.||It is essential for good eyesight, healthy skin and hair|
|Vitamin B1||Milk, eggs, meat, cereals, green vegetables etc.||It is essential for growth and proper functioning of heart, nerves, muscles and digestive system|
|Vitamin C||Orange, lemon, amla, guava, tomato, green vegetables etc.||1. It keeps teeth, gums and joints healthy 2. It also makes our immune system strong|
|Vitamin D||Milk, fish, butter, liver oil, egg etc. NOTE: vitamin D is also synthesized by skin of our body when it is exposed in sunlight||1. It is essential for the normal growth of teeth and bones 2. It helps our body to absorb calcium mineral from food which makes teeth and bones hard and strong|
Note: Vitamin vitamin vitamin and vitamin are together known as vitamin B-Complex.
Minerals: Minerals are essential for proper functioning of our body. It is essential for formation of bones, teeth, blood and functioning of muscles and thyroid gland. Some important minerals are potassium, iron, calcium, iodine, phosphorus, sodium etc.
|Calcium||Milk, fish, eggs, green leafy vegetable etc.||1. It is essential for making bones and teeth 2. It helps in the proper functioning of heart and other muscles 3. It helps in blood clotting|
|Phosphorus||Milk, banana, pulses, pearl millet green leafy vegetables etc.||It is needed for the formation of bones and teeth|
|Iodine||Sea-food, iodized salt, fruits, vegetables etc.||It is needed for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland which controls the growth of the body|
|Iron||Spinach, eggs, liver, cereals, green leafy vegetables etc.||It is essential for the formation of hemoglobin in the blood|
Water: Water is essential for us. We cannot survive without water. It contributes about 70% of our body weight. Every day we require approximately 2-3 liters of water.
Function of Water in Our Body: Water has many functions in our body:
It carries the essential substances like digested food and hormones to the body cells.
It helps in removing waste materials out of body.
It controls and regulates the temperature of body.
Roughage: Roughage is the indigestible dietary fiber. In other words, it is the fiber which can be eaten but cannot be digested by us.
Source of roughage in our food: Plant foods are the main source of dietary fiber. We get dietary fiber from fruits and vegetables. Grains like wheat and rice are also the source of roughage.
Function of roughage in our body: It helps to move food inside the intestine.
Therefore, it is essential for the normal working of digestive system.
An adequate amount of nutrients, water and roughage are essential for proper functioning of our body.
The diet, which contains all the nutrients, water and roughage in sufficient amount is called balanced diet..
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