(c) In polymerase chain reaction polymerization
or extension step is catalyzed by Taqpolymerase enzyme. PCR is carried out in
the following three steps
(i) Denaturation The double-stranded DNA
is denatured by applying high temperature of 95o for 15 seconds.
Each separated single stranded strand now acts as template for DNA synthesis.
(ii) Annealing Two sets of
primers are added which anneal to the 3 end of each separated strand. Primers
act as initiators of replication.
(iii) Extension DNA polymerase
extends the primers by adding nucleotides complementary to the template
provided in the reaction.
A thermostable DNA polymerase
(Taq DNA polymerase) is used in the reaction which can tolerate the high
temperature of the reaction.
All these steps are repeated
many times to obtain several copies of desired DNA.
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