• # question_answer 47)   The types of hybrid orbitals of nitrogen in $NO_{2}^{+},NO_{3}^{-}$and $NH_{4}^{+}$ respectively are expected to be : (a) $sp,\text{ }s{{p}^{3}}$and$s{{p}^{2}}$      (b) $sp,\text{ }s{{p}^{2}}$and $s{{p}^{3}}$                (c)$~s{{p}^{2}},\text{ }sp$and$s{{p}^{3}}$                      (d) $s{{p}^{2}},\text{ }s{{p}^{3}}$and $sp$

(b) The number of orbitals involved in hybridisation can be determined by the application of formula : $H=\frac{1}{2}[V+M-C+A]$ where H = number of orbitals involved in hybridisation V = valence electrons of central atom M = number of monovalent atoms linked with central atom C = charge on the cation A = charge on the anion $NO_{2}^{+}:\,\,\,\,\,\,\,H=\frac{1}{2}[5+0-1+0]=2\,\,\,sp$ $NO_{3}^{-}:\,\,\,\,\,\,\,H=\frac{1}{2}[5+0-0+1]=3\,\,s{{p}^{2}}$ $NH_{4}^{+}:\,\,\,\,\,\,\,H=\frac{1}{2}[5+4-1+0]=4\,\,s{{p}^{3}}$