UPSC History World History Short Notes - World History

Short Notes - World History

Category : UPSC





World Ancient History


Mesopotamian Civilization


Time Period


5000-3500 BC

The first city built by Sumerian people in southern Mesopotamia.

3500 BC

Writing started with pictogram based script and took about a thousand year to be evolved in full cuneiform script.

2300 BC

The first akkadian ruler Sargon started to conquer Sumerian cities

2112-2095 BC

The central city of Ur was built by Ur-Nammu and called as the third dynasty of Mesopotamian.


Development of Babylonian civilization by king Hammurabi along Euphrates River.

1530 BC

Kassite came into being in Hammurabi's rule in 1750 BC and categorized into minorities of Mesopotamia.

1500 BC

Northern Mesopotamia is conquered by an Indo-European ruler called Mittani. He has also conquered Syria and Asia Minor.

1200-900 BC

Assyria started to lose its importance due to political instability engulfing Anatolia Syria and the Levant coast.


Egyptian Civilization


Time Period



Farming started along the bank of Nile River.

3500-3000 BC

Starting of Pre dynastic period which was characterized by permanent settlement.


Old kingdom began to flourish which was known to be the era of dynamic development of Egyptian art.

12575-2465 BC

Pharaoh Khufu built Great pyramid of Giza having a height of 481 feet

2381-2345 BC

The Old Kingdom ended during the realm of Unas.

12055-1650 BC

The era of middle kingdom started with reunion of Egypt.

1539 BC

With the expulsion of the Hyksos and reunification of Egypt, it became the leading power in the Middle East. |

1344-1328 BC

The first ever instance of monotheism had been illustrated by the religious reforms of pharaoh Akhenaton.

1336-1327 BC

The realm of Tutankhamen.

1279-1213 BC

The existence of Ramses Realm when Egypt experienced the heigh- of its power.

728 BC

Nubian kings took over the power of Egypt.

639 BC

The period of revival started with the expulsion of Assyrians by Egyptians.

525 BC

Persians started ruling the Egypt.

332 BC

Alexander the great conquered Egypt.


A greek-speaking dynasty was established by one of the generals of Alexander the Great.

30 BC

The last queen of independent Egypt died and Roman empire occupied Egypt


Greek Civilization


Time Period


776 BC

The first official date of Olympic Games


Greek started planting colonies on the Mediterranean coast


Athens and Sparta took lead for defending their land against invasion from the huge Persian Empire


Athenian Empire was at the height of its power


Athens was defeated by Sparta in the Second Peloponnesian War


Socrates, the famous philosopher of Athens was sentenced to death as he was questioning conventional ideas


The Greek city-states were defeated by King Phillip II of Macedon



   Roman Civilization



Time Period


753 BC

Rome was founded


Roman republic was built


Rome was sacked by the Gauls


First Punic War between Carthage and Rome took place

218-202 BC

Second Punic War consisting of several small battles took place where Rome was the ultimate winner

83-31 BC

Decline of Roman Republic due to the continuous phases of civil wars

27 BC

Augustus established himself as the first of the Roman emperors


Roman Empire became the largest empire of its time


Constantine the Great got converted to Christianity


Goths sacked Roman Empire


The last Roman emperor was thrown out by German Tribes


Seven wonders of Ancient World

  1. Hanging garden of Babylon
  2. Pyramids of Egypt
  3. The Pharaoh at Alexandria
  4. Statue of Zeus at Olympia
  5. Colossus at Rhodes-912 ft. statue of Helos, the sun god, stands at one side of the harbour
  6. Temple of Diana at Epheus (Rome)
  7. Mausoleum of Mausolus [Ruler of Halt-carnassus)


World Medieval History




Time Period


500-600 AD

·         A monastery was built in Italy.

·         Christianity was introduced in England.

·         The foundation stone of Roman Catholic Church was laid by Gregory the Great.

650-700 AD

History of the English Church and People was written by Bede

800 AD

Charlemagne, the King of the Franks, was crowned as Holy Roman Emperor.

850-900 AD

First Russian states founded at Kiev and Novgorod

900-950 AD

Viking raids across Western Europe


Medical school set up in Salerno, Italy (1030)

1050-1100 AD

·       William of Normandy invaded England and becomes king

·       First Crusade was pro-claimed

1150-1200 AD

Construction    of   the cathedral of Notre Dame


1200-1250 AD

·      St Francis of Assist sets up a monastic order, emphasizing   austerity and compassion

·      Rebellion against the king by the Lords of England as he signed the Magna Carta, accepting to rule according to law.

1250-1300 AD

Establishment   of   the Habsburg dynasty that continued to rule Austria till 1918




Time Period



Ghana Empire was created

1050- 1100AD     

Expansion of Almoravid kingdom from Ghana to southern Spain


Emergence of Zimbabwe as a centre for producing gold and copper artifacts and long distance trade.


·         Christian      churches established in Ethiopia

·         Kingdom of Mali was established   in   West

Africa, with Timbuktu as a centre of learning

1375 AD  

Gao rebelled against and Songhai started to expand its realm

1465 AD  

Songhai conquered Mema and after three years seized Timbaktu

1588-91   AD

Songahi was attacked by Moroccan forces with firearms and they kept on conquering Tondibi, Timbuktu and Gao one after the other





Time Period



·      The great Prophet of

      Islam, was born in Mecca

·      With the rise of new religion Islam, the Arab civilization started expanding its realm


After  the  death  of Mohammad his successors continued to spread his teachings and were known as Caliphs or Khalifas

13th Century AD

The Islamic Empire came to an end with the defeat of Abbasids by Seljuq Turks


Islam in Arab Civilization


  • Hazrat Prophet Muhammad Saheb founded the Islam as a religion.
  • He was born on Monday, April 22nd, 571 A.D. (12th Rabi Ul Awwal) in Mecca.
  • His father was Abdulsah & mother was Aminah.
  • His father died in Madina before Muhammad was born.
  • His grandfather was Abdul Muttalib.
  • He was suckled by Haleema (Dai).
  • His mother died when he was 6 year and grandfather died 2 years later.
  • His uncle - Abu Talib took care of him.
  • Khadijah (a rich widow lady) of age 40 years married Muhammad (25 yrs).
  • Hijri Era started on 24th September 622 when lie migrated to Medina.
  • He attained enlightment, i.e. the first revelation came to him on Monday, August 10th, 610 AD (21st of Ramadan) at 40 years of age at Gaare-Hira (Hira cave).
  • First persons who embraced Islam were Khadija (wife), Zaid (slave), Alt (cousin), & Abu Bakr (friend).
  • Prophet Muhammad died on Monday, 8th June, 623 AD and was buried at Medhina.
  • Islam divided into shia and sunni cults after his death.
  • His successors were called Khalifa.
  • Eid-milad-un-Nabi is celebrated as his birthday of the prophet.



  • It was founded by Jesus Christ (i.e. Merriah).
  • He was born on 25th December to Mother Mary (Marium) in Bethlehen (Nr. Jerusalam)                     
  • Bible is the holy book of Christians.
  • His crucifixion [hanging) on cross was happened in about AD 33.
  • So, sign of 'cross' is Christians holy symbol.


Zoroastrianism (Parsi)

  • Prophet Zoroaster founded the Parsi religion.
  • The holy book of Parsi is Avesta.
  • Parsis believe in one God-Ahur.


Medieval China

  • From the early 7th century, China was ruled by the Tang dynasty.
  • The rule of Tang dynasty [618 AD - 906 AD) was followed by the Sung dy- nasty for about 300 years.
  • After this, for about 100 years China was ruled by the Mongols.
  • The rule of the Mongols in China was followed by that of Ming dynasty which continued for about 300 years.
  • In 1644, China was conquered by the Manchus who continued to rule until 1911 AD.


Contributions of Medieval China

  • To prevent drain on the country's wealth the Sung rulers started the use of paper-money.
  • The invention of gun-powder was made in China in the 10th century about 400 years beforethe knowledge reached the western world.
  • The Chinese made iron-chain suspen- sion bridges as early as the 10th cen- tury.
  • The Chinese devised the first method of printing in 10th century. The impor- tance of this invention for the spread of knowledge was as great as the invention of paper.


World Modern History



The European era between 14"' to 17"' pnturies AD was designated as the Age ,f Renaissance generally known for "Revival of Learning". The Florence city nf Italian reion Tuscany was well known as the birth place of Renaissance.

It is said to have began from the capture of Constantinople (at present Istanbul) bv the Turk in 1453 and the dispersal of the scholars throughout Europe, who sought asylum in Italy.


Great Litterateurs of Renaissance



Dante ( ?Divine Comedy?), Petrarch ( founder of Humanism & known as the ?father of Humanism), Boccacio (  Decameron?),Machiavelli ( ?The prince?)


Cervantes (?Don Quixote?)

Portu- guese

Comeos (?The Lusiad?).


Erasmus (?In the praise of Folly?).


Rebelais (?Pantagruel? & ?Garhantua?), Montaigne (?Essais?).


Thomas Kempis (?The Imitation of Christ?).


Claucer (?Canterbury Tales?),Spenser (?The faerie queen?), Bacon (?The Advancement of Learning?) Shakespeare (?Romeo & Juliet?, ?The Merchant of Venice?, ?As You Like It? ?Julieus Caesar?, ?Hamlet?, Macbeth), Thomas More (?Utopia?).


Reformation: It was a social movement, started by Martin Luther in Wittenburg, Germany in 1517 by publically protesting against the sale of letters of Indulgence [as passport to heaven).


  • It was against Roman Catholic Church.
  • As a result Western Europe was divided between Catholic   &   Protestant countries.
  • Other leader was Caloin of Switzer- land. So the movement was a challenge to the authority of Pope.

Glorious Revolution: It was glorious be- cause of Bloodless Revolution focused on securing freedom of worship from Catholics and unifying whigs and Tones of Anglican church against the Roman Catholic ruler James-II.

Industrial Revolution: It was the pro- cess of change in earning livelihood by adopting industrial processes rather than agriculture in 18th century in Britain. It was due to technological inventi-ons, egs. Spinning jenny power loom, etc.

American Revolution: It was the mutiny of people leaving in 13 colonies of Eng- land in North America in late 18th century

French Revolution

  • It put an end to French monarchy
  • It started in 1789 and ended in 1799.
  • It was carried out by Napoleon in later expansion of French Empire.

Russian Revolution

  • It was based on the Marxism ideology
  • It took place in 1917.
  • As a result of this revolution Soviet Union was created.


Geographical Discoveries




Discover ( Nationality )

Sponsored by

Cape of Good Hope


Bartholomew Diaz (Portuguese)




Christopher Columbus (Geneo, Italian)


Newfound land


John Cabot (Italian)


Sea-route of India via Cape of Good Hope


Vasco da Gama (Portuguese)




 Pedro Alvarez Cabral (Portu- guese)


Strait of Magellan


Magellan (Portuguese)


Island of Tasmania & New Zealand


Tasman (Dutch)


Sandwich Island/Hawaiian Island


Captain James Cook (British)


North Pole


Robert Peary (American)


South Pole


Amundsen (Norwegian)



World Wars-I & II and other Warsf







Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Turkey (i.e Central powers) Vs. France, Russia, Britain, US, Italy (i.e. Allies or Entente Powers)

28-07-1914 to 11-11- 1918

1, Murder of Austrian King A. Ferdin and 2. Militarism...

1. End of German, Russian, Ottoman, etc. empires 2. Formation of league of Nation


Britain, France, USSR, US, (i.e. Allies or Entente Powers) vs. Germany, Italy & Japan (i.e. Axis or Central Powers)

01-09-1939 to 02-09- 1945

1. Conflict between German & Poland 2. Treaty of Versailles (1919)

1. Collapse of Nazi Germany 2. Fall of Japanese & Italian Empires

Trojan War

City of Troy Vs. City of Sparta

10 years

Kidnapping of Queen Helen

Victory of Greek & destruction of Troy

Persian War

Greek vs. Persia

499 BC to 449 BC

Darius I of Persia attacked Athens

Victory of Greek over Persia

Hundred Years War

France vs. England

1453 B.C. to 1337 B.C.

King Edward III & England invaded France

Victory of France over England

Russo- Japanese War

Russia vs. Japan

1904 to 1905 AD

For imperial authority over Manchuria & Korea

Japanese won the war

Vietnam War

Vietnam with Soviet union vs. China

1955 to 1975

To check spread of communism all over South-Asia

? Victory of North Vietnam ? American forces backed out from China

Iraq-Iran War

Iran vs. Iraq

1980 to 1988 AD

Border disputes between them

Iranian invasion failed


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