Short Notes - Maratha State (1674-1818)
Category : UPSC
Maratha State (1674-1818)
- Shivaji was born at Shivner, Poona and died on April 3, 1680 in Rajgarh.
- He was founder of the Maratha kingdom of India.
- Shahji Bhonsle was the father and Jija Bai was the mother of Shivaji.
- Shivaji inherited the Jagir of Poona from his father in 1637.
- After the death of his guardian Dadaji Kondadev Shivaji took over full charge of his Jagir.
- In 1659, Shivaji killed Afzal Khan who was deputed by Adil Shah to suppress him.
- Ashta Pradhan Mandal was the Cabinet of Eight Ministers in the court of Shivaji.
- Ashta Pradhan- Peshwa [Prime Minister], Muzumdar [Finance Minister], Surnis (Minister for Land Revenue, Vaknis (Minister for Internal and External Intelligence). Dabir (Minster for External Affairs], Sarnaubat (Commander-in-Chief),Nyayadhish (Chief Justice).
- Nanak (1469-1539) founded Sikh religion.
- Angad (1538-52) invented Gurmukhi.
- Amardas (1552-74) struggled against sati system and purdah system and established 22 Gadiyans to propagate religion.
- Ramdas (1574-81) founded Amritsar in 1577. Akbar granted the land.
- Arjun (1581-1606) founded Swam Mandir (Golden Temple) and composed Adi Granth.
- Hargobind Singh (1606-45) established Akal Takht and fortified Amritsar.
- Har Rai (1645-66)
- Harkishan (1661-64)
- Tegh Bahadur (1664-75)
- Gobind Singh (1675-1708) was the last Guru who founded the Khalsa. After him Sikh guruship ended.