9th Class English Grammar


Category : 9th Class




Learning Objectives


  • Use of Article
  • Use of Noun
  • Use of Pronoun
  • Use of Conjunction
  • Use of Adjective
  • Use of Adverb
  • Subject - Verb Agreement
  • Preposition
  • Modals
  • Use of Tense


Use of Article


Articles are divided into two parts, that is, indefinite articles and definite article.

'A' and 'an' is regarded as indefinite article. ‘The' is the definite article.


Use of ‘A’


Apart from its usual uses before the words that start with a consonant sound, 'a' is also used;


  1. With 'one'.

Example: a one-man show.

  1. with vowel letters having consonant sound.

Example: a university.

  1. With units and rate.

Example: Rice sells five rupees a kilo.

  1. In exclamatory sentences before singular countable noun.

Example: What a pretty kid!

  1. To make a common noun of a proper noun.

Example: This man is a second 'Einstein'.


Use of ‘An’

Apart from its use before the words that start with a vowel sound, 'an' is also used:


  1. Before word beginning with silent 'h'.

Example: an hour

  1. Before abbreviations beginning with F, H, L, M, N, R, S X, as they give a vowel sound.

Example: An F.I.R.


Use of 'The'


  1. When we speak of a particular person,

Example: I love the guy.

  1. When a singular noun represents a whole class.

Example: The guava is considered as the poor man's apple.

  1. Religious groups.

Example: The Parsees

  1. Names enforcing law.

Example: The police

  1. Parts of Body; Musical Instruments; Political Parties etc.
  2. With superlatives

Example: He is the best boy in the class of IX.

  1. Before an adjective when the noun is understood.

Example: We must not shun the disabled.


Use of Noun


Some nouns are used in singular forms.



(i)  Scenery, information, furniture, advice, poetry, machinery, stationary, fuel, issue etc.

(ii) Physics, Economics, Athletics, Mathematics, Innings, Ethics, Classics, Gallows.

(iii) Words like hundred, thousands, millions, dozen, score etc. when preceded by a numeral.


Some nouns are used in plural forms.


(i) Cattle, police, gentry, poultry, people, peasantry, artillery etc.

(ii) Scissors, trousers, stockings, spectacles, shorts, remains, riches etc.


Some nouns are used both in singular and plural forms.


(i)  Deer, sheep, fish, apparatus, wages

(ii) Collective nouns as jury, public, team, audience, committee, government, audience etc.


Use of Pronoun


Pronouns are the words used to replace nouns or noun groups already mentioned,


Given below are some uses of pronoun.


  1. The pronoun 'one' must be followed by ‘One’s.
  2. 'Everyone' or 'everybody' must be followed by 'his'.
  3. ‘Let’ is followed by pronoun in the objective case.

Example: Let him go.

  1. Each, every, anyone/anybody must be followed by singular pronoun of their person.

Example: Everyone should love his country.

  1. 'But' and 'except' are followed by pronoun in objective case.
  2. Verb like 'enjoy', avail, pride, resign, apply, absent etc. are followed by reflexive pronouns.

Example: They enjoyed themselves at the cricket match.

  1. Reflexive pronouns are never used with verbs like, 'keep', 'conceal', 'qualify', spread', 'rest', 'stay' etc.
  2. 'Who' denotes subject and 'whom' denotes object.
  3. 'Which' conveys additional information and 'that' explains a certain things.
  4. The following expressions usually take 'that' in place of 'who' or 'which'. Only, And, It is. All, Superlatives.


Use of Conjunction


  1. 'Scarcely' or 'hardly' is followed by 'when'.
  2. 'Though' is followed by 'yet'.
  3. 'Lest' is negative. So it should not be followed by 'not' but by 'should'.
  4. 'Both' is complemented by ' and', not by 'as well as'.
  5. 'So…..as’ Is used in negative sentence,… where as ‘as .,,,... as’ is used In affirmative sentence.
  6. 'Other' is followed by 'that''.
  7. The word 'reason' is not followed by 'because' but by 'that',
  8. 'Because' denotes reason, and in order that' denotes purpose.
  9. If is used in conditional sense and 'Whether' is used in uncertainty.
  10. 'Unless', 'until', If not', "so that"' should not be followed by ''not.


Use of Adjective


  1. The adjective ending in '____ior' (junior, senior prior, inferior etc.) take 'to' not ‘than’ after them.

Example: Biyanka is senior to Raul.

  1. 2. Comparative degree is used in comparing two things or persons.

Example: This is the better of the two dresses.

  1. Double comparatives and double superlatives must not be used.
  2. When we compare two qualities in the same person or thing, the comparative ending '___er' is not used.

Example: Shana is wiser than old. (û) Shana is more wise than old. (ü)

  1. When two adjectives with differing degrees of comparison are used they should be complete in themselves.

Example: Anil is as rich as, if not richer than his brother.

  1. Compound adjective formed by adding 'worth' is placed after the noun it qualifies,

Example: This is a movie worth seeing.

  1. 'Little' means 'not much'. 'A little' means 'at least some'.
  2. 'Farther' means more distance. 'Further' means additional
  3. 'Latter' means second of the two.
  4. 'Each is used for one of two or more things. 'Every' is used for more than two things, taken as a group.


Use of Adverb


  1. Adverb of manner, place and time are usually placed after the verb or object.
  2. The adverb 'enough' is placed after the adjective.
  3. The word 'only' should be placed immediately before the word it modifies.
  4. An adverb should not be used before an infinitive.
  5. Adverbs of frequency (never, often, usually, always, rarely etc.) and other adverbs (like already, almost, like, quite, nearly etc.) are normally put between subject and verb.


Subject-verb Agreement


Subject -Verb agreement is one of the most important topics in Grammar It can be called the structure or the skeleton. For correct and confident English, you have to have a good understanding of this agreement.


Subject - Verb agreement is based on two basic rules.

Rule 1:



(i)  With 'I'; excluding W and 'was', there is always a Plural subject.

(ii) 'You' always takes a Plural subject.


Rule 2:


Subjects and verbs must agree with one another in number (singular or plural) thus, if a subject is singular, its verb must also be singular, if a subject is plural, its verb must also be plural.


Remember that, problems related to subject-verb agreement are normally found with the usage of associated subjects like-is are, am, was, were, do, does, have, has, etc. or with main subject in present Indefinite Tense.


Let us check a few different conditions related to subject-verb agreement.


  1. If the subject of a sentence is singular noun, then it takes a singular verb



(i) Kate is always punctual. (Sing. Noun = Sing. Verb)

  1. If two singular nouns are joined with and, then the verb is plural



(i) Rahul and Anita have gone home. (Sing. Noun + Sing. Noun = Plural Verb)

  1. If two singular nouns are joined with and, but before them there is each, every etc. then it takes a singular verb.



(i) Each officer and each manager is invited, (each + Sing. Noun, each + Sing. Noun = Sing Verb)

  1. If two singular nouns are joined with and to express something about a person, thing or expression, then singular verb is used.




Bread and Butter is my favorite breakfast. (Sing. Noun + Sing. Noun = Sing Verb)

A few other such pair of nouns are -Rice and curry / Horse and carriage / Hammer and Sickle / Crown and glory, etc.


But, the exception is: if two such nouns are used to denote two different things, then it takes a plural verb,



Crown and glory exist together. (Noun + Noun = Plural verb)


  1. If two nouns or pronouns are joined with-as well as / in addition to / besides / like/unlike / with / along with / together with / accompanied by / led by / headed by / guided by / controlled by / governed by, etc. then the verb is according to the noun or pronoun given in the first case in the sentence.




(i) You as well as your brother were absent yesterday. (Noun + Noun = Plural verb)


  1. If two subjects are joined by -


Not only...... but also



then, the verb always follows its nearest subject.




(i) Neither you nor I am going to see him. (Subject, Subject \[\to \] Verb)

  1. If subjects are joined with not.....but or not, then the verb follows that subject which is not with the subject not.



(i) Not she but her friends are responsible. (Subject \[\to \] Verb)

  1. If the subject of a sentence is - Each / Either / Neither, then it takes a singular verb,



(i) I invited two guests but neither has come. (Subject \[\to \] Singular verb)

  1. After - Each of / Either of / Neither of / Everyone of / One of, etc., the noun or pronoun is always plural; but, the verb remains singular.



(i) Each of the snakes is poisonous. (Plural noun \[\to \] Singular verb)

  1. If the subject of a sentence is Everybody / Somebody / Nobody / Anybody / Someone/ No one / Everyone / Anyone / Everything / Something / Nothing / Anything, etc., then the verbs always singular.




(i) Everybody knows that the sun is a star. (Subject \[\to \] Sing. Verb)




  1. Generally, a preposition is used before a noun or pronoun. But, sometimes, a preposition is not used before a noun or pronoun.

Example: Who was she talking to?


  1. Prepositions can also govern other parts of speech used as Nouns.

Example: From here, before now, for good, in short, about to go, etc.


  1. Prepositions can also govern Phrases and Clauses.

Example: I shall go to where you have come from.


  1. Phrase Prepositions or Prepositional Phrases are phrases used as prepositions.

Example: On account of, instead of, in spite of, by means of, owing to, by dint of, in accordance with, etc.


Classification of Prepositions


  1. Preposition of Direction

Example: to, towards, for, along, against, across, up, down, into, etc.


  1. Prepositions of Place / Position

Example: at, in, on, above, below, over, under, between, among, amongst, amid, amidst, before, behind, etc.


  1. Prepositions of Time

Example: at, on, for, since, before, after, within, in till, by, during, from, etc.


  1. Some Other Prepositions

Example: about, off, of




Introduction: All the auxiliary verbs except be, do and have are called modals. Unlike other auxiliary verbs, modals only exist in their helping form; they cannot act alone as the main verb in a sentence.


The modal verbs are: Can, Could, May, Might, Must, Shall, Should, Ought to. Will, Would


Uses of Modal Verbs






They can control their own budgets.

We can?t fix it.

Can I smoke here?

Can you help me?

Ability / possibility Inability / impossibility

Asking for permission Request


Could I borrow your dictionary?

Could you say it again more solely?

We could try to fix it ourselves.

I think we could have another Gulf War.

He gave up his old job so he could work for us. 

Asking for permission.



Future possibility

Ability in the past


May I have another cup of coffee?

China may become a major economic power.

Asking for permission

Future possibility


We?d better phone tomorrow, they might be eating their dinner now.

They might give us a 10% discount.   

Present possibility

Future possibility


We must say good-bay now.

They mustn?t disrupt the work more than necessary.

Necessity / Obligation


Ought to

We ought to employ a professional writer.

Saying what?s right or correct


Shall I help you with your luggage?

Shall we say 2.30 then?

Shall I do that or will you?



Asking what to do  


We should sort out this problem at once.

I think we should check everything again.

Profits should increase next year.

Saying what?s right or correct

Recommending Action

Uncertain prediction


I can?t see any taxis so I?II walk.

I?II get back to you first thing on Monday.

Profits will increase next year.

Instant decisions



Certain prediction


Would you mind if I brought a colleague with me?

Would you pass the salt please?

Would you mind waiting a moment?

?Would three O?clock suit you??- ?That?d be fine?.

Would you like to play golf this Friday?

?Would you prefer tea or coffee??-?I?d like tea please?.

Asking for permission



Making arrangements

Invitation preferences


(i)  Modals express the mood a verb, such as ability / possibility, necessity, or another condition.

(ii) They are used with a main verb to form a sentence or a question.

(iii) Modals are not conjugated, have no tense, and cannot be used without a main verb.

(iv) When used with modal verbs (except ought), main verbs always remain in the infinitive without to.


Use of Tense


  1. When verb in the Principal Clause is in the Past Tense, the verbs of the Subordinate Clause should be in the Past Tense.
  2. Any tense can be used when the sub-ordinate clause is in a quotation.
  3. Any tense may be used in the subordinate clause if it gives a comparison by using the word 'than'.

Example: He respected me more than he respects his aunt.

  1. The Past Perfect Tense cannot be used \[\left( subject + has/have + {{v}_{3}} \right)\] cannot be used when an expression of past time.

Example: yesterday, last night etc. are used.

  1. With the phrases "as if and 'as though' Past Tense and plural form of the verb should be used.
  2. Past Perfect Tense should be used when a sentence refers to two past actions and one of them occurs earlier than the others.
  3. Wors like 'usually', 'generally', 'often', 'whenever' etc are used in Present Indefinite Tense.
  4. Do not use the Future or the Present Tense after such expressions as ' suppose that', 'it is high time', 'It is time', 'As if etc

Example: It is time that we played chess.

  1. A Past Tense in the Principal Clause may or may not be followed by the Past Tense in the Subordinate Clause if the later expresses universal or habitual truth.

Example: My father told me that the Earth revolves round the Sun.

  1. If the action began in the past and is still continuing in the present, use Present

Perfect Tense \[\left( subject + has/have + {{v}_{4}} \right)\].

Example: I have been studying in this coaching class for six month.






Other Topics

Notes - Grammar

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