12th Class Biology Population (Demography) Test Tube Babies

Test Tube Babies

Category : 12th Class

The technique of in-vitro fertilization and in-vitro development followed by the embryo-transfer in the uterus of the normal female to start the development and finally leading to normal birth, is called test tube baby.

History : First attempt to produce a test tube baby was made by a Italian scientist, Dr. Petrucci (1959 A.D.). Although, this human embryo survived for only 29 days, but his experiment opened a new filed of biological science. The first test tube baby was born to Lesley and Gilbert Brown on July 25, 1978, in Oldham, England. Mrs. Brown had obstructed Fallopian tubes. Dr.Patiricke Steptoe and Dr. Robert Edward both from England experimented on Mrs. Brown successfully. the world's first test tube baby (a baby girl) was named as Louise Joy Brown. Later, test tube babies were also born in Australia, United States and some other countries. India's first test tube baby was born on 3rd October, 1978 in Kolkata. Her name was Kanupriya Aggarwal and was created by Dr. Subash Mukherjee.

Procedure : It involves the following steps :

(1) Removal of unfertilized ovum from reproductive tract of a female.

(2) Ovum is kept under aseptic conditions.

(3) Fusion of sperm and ovum in a culture medium, outside the female body, to form the zygote.

(4) Zygote is stimulated to develop in vitro upto 32-celled stage.

(5) Developing embryo is implanted on the endometrium of the uterus at 32-celled stage. So the pregnancy in the woman starts and further development of the child continues in the womb till it is born. Such a baby called a test tube baby.


(1) It is boon to infertile mothers.

(2) It can be used for men with Oligospermia (low sperm count).

(3) Old superior cows can donate oocytes.

Embryos can be frozen and preserved in an embryo tank for 10 years for future use.

In very rare cases, a surrogate mother may have to be used to bring up in vitro fertilized ovum to maturity. Though biological realization of a test baby is a remarkable achievement, it has raised several ethical and legal problems like the right over the child.

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