12th Class Psychology Solved Paper - Psychology-2018 Delhi

  • question_answer
    Explain the effects of stress on psychological functioning.


    There are four major effects of stress:
    Emotional Effects: Those who suffer from stress are far more likely to experience:
    (i) Mood Swings
    (ii) Erratic Behaviour
    (iii) Alienate them from family and friends
    (iv) Decreasing Confidence
    (v) Feelings of anxiety and depression
    Physiological Effects: When the human body is placed under physical or psychological stress, it:
    (i) Increases production of hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol.
    (ii) Changes in heart rate. Blood pressure levels, metabolism and physical activity.
    (iii) Release of epinephrine and nor-epinephrine, slowing down digestive system, expansion of air passages in the lungs, increased heart rate and constriction of blood vessels.
    Behavioural Effects: Stress affects our behaviour in the form of:
    (i) Eating less nutritional food.
    (ii) Increasing intake of stimulants such as caffeine, excessive consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and other drugs such as tranquilizers. Their side effects are loss of con-centration, poor coordination and dizziness.
    (iii) Disrupted sleep patterns, increased absenteeism, and reduced work performance.
    Cognitive Effects: Suffering from high level of stress can rapidly causes individuals to:
    (i) Suffer from mental overload.
    (ii) Lose ability to make sound decisions.
    (iii) Faulty decisions may lead to arguments, failure, financial loss or even loss of job.
    (iv) Poor concentration and reduced short-term memory capacity.

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