A crucial development in India?s foreign affairs was the first nuclear explosion in May 1974. When communist China conducted nuclear tests in October 1964, the five nuclear weapon powers, the USA, USSR, UK, France and China (Taiwan than represented China) also me five Permanent Members of the UN Security Council-tried to impose the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968 on the rest of the world. India always considered the NPT as criminatory and had refused to sign it. When India conducted its first nuclear test it was termed as peaceful explosion. India argued that it was committed to the policy of using nuclear power only for peaceful purpose. Nehru had always put his faith in science and technology for rapidly building a modern India. A significant component of his industrialization plans was the nuclear programme initiated in the late 1940s under the guidance of Homi J. Bhabha. India wanted to generate atomic energy for peaceful purposes. Nehru was against nuclear weapons. So he pleaded with the superpowers for comprehensive nuclear disarmament. However, the nuclear arsenal kept rising.
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