|'Was the declaration of emergency in 1975 necessary' Support your answer with any three suitable arguments.
|Explain any three lessons learnt from the emergency imposed in 1975.
Declaration of emergency in 1975 was necessary. On 25th June 1975, the President of India declared internal emergency under Article 352 on the advice of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Due to certain circumstances, Mrs. Indira Gandhi was left with no option except to impose emergency. Emergency was justified by then Prime Minister, Mrs. Indira Gandhi when she gave a speech to Lok Sabha on July 22, 1975 and said, "This action is totally within our constitutional framework and it was undertaken in order not to destroy the constitution but to preserve the constitution, to preserve and safeguard our democracy.?
1. Economic crisis due to high cost of 1971 war, crop failures of 1972 - 73, increase in oil prices in 1973 - 74 was one big reason for imposing emergency.
2. Strike of Railway employees in 1974, Bihar Movement led by students, were also responsible for the declaration of emergency in 1975.
3. A writ issued by Allahabad High Court invalidating Smt. Indira Gandhi 1971 elections made her ineligible to occupy her seat for years.
On the advice of Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi, the President declared internal emergency on 25 June 1975. Thousands of workers and leaders of the opposition parties were put in jail under MISA. Many restrictions were put on the freedom of press. Legislative Assemblies of Gujarat and Tamilnadu were dissolved. Following three lessons were learnt from the emergency:
1. Bureaucracy and Judiciary should be independent. Bureaucracy should be independent and impartial. It should not be committed to the ideology and principles of ruling party.
2. The government should run the administration according to the provisions of constitution. Constitution is supreme and its supremacy should be protected by the Judiciary.
3. Freedom of press should not be crushed. Freedom of press is very essential for the successful working of democracy. Political consciousness is created among the people by the press.
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