|Consider the following statements:|
|1. Nagara and Dravida temples are generally identified with the Northern and Southern temple styles respectively.|
|2. The earliest temples of Dravidian style temple are the rock cut temples known as Dharmaraja Ratha at Mamallapuram and structural temples at Kanchi. Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?|
A) Only 1
B) Only 2
C) Both 1 and 2
D) neither 1 nor 2
Correct Answer: C
Solution :[c] By the passage of time the Indian temples evolved itself into two main styles; Nagara and Dravidian. These styles can be distinguished by the shape of their Shikharas and on the plan of its layout. In Nagara style, prevalent in North India, the tower or Shikhara is beehive or curvilinear shaped. In Dravidian style, prevalent in South India, the Shikhara (please note that Shikharas are not to be confused with Gopura which is only a gateway) consists of progressively smaller layers of pravillions. In Plan, Nagara style temple lay-out is a square with a number of graduated projections in the middle of each side giving a cruciform shape with a number of re-entrant angles on each side. The Khandariya Mahadeva temple of Khajuraho is the specimen of this style. In plan, Dravida temple layout invariably comprises of three parts. First is the Garbha Griha which houses the idol of the deity. Over the Garbha Griha there will be a lofty pyramidal structure known as Vimana or Shikhara. The second one Mandapam or porch in front of the Garbha Griha is a pillared hall used for various purposes and a third topuram or Gate way protecting the outer walls of the temple structure and serving as the entrance to the temple. The Meenakshi temple at Madurai is the specimen for this style Meanwhile, a third architecture style known as 'Vesara' also gained popularity in Deccan. It is the fusion of Nagara and Dravidian style. The Later Chalukya Dynasty and the Hoysalas used it extensively. It gave prominence to laborate sculptures on the walls, depressed ceilings, lathe-turned pillars and fully sculptured vimanas. Temples at Belur, Halebid and Somanathpura are specimens.
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