Genetic engineering is helpful in the production of recombinant vaccines or second generation vaccines. They have gene inserts for the surface proteins of a pathogen that elicit immunity but do not result in infection. These plasmids are inserted in bacteria or yeast cells that express the viral proteins which are then injected into the human host as vaccine. There they are recognised as foreign and an immune response is elicited. Recombinant hepatitis-B vaccine and polio vaccine are the examples of recombinant DNA vaccine.
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