6th Class Mental Ability Related to Competitive Exam Non-Verbal

Non-Verbal

Category : 6th Class

Non-Verbal

Learning Objectives

• What is Non-Verbal Reasoning
• Types of Problems

What is Non-verbal Reasoning

Non-Verbal reasoning is a figure based reasoning. It has no language at all. To solve non-verbal problems one has to find out the pattern of pictorial presentation in the given figure. To get a more clear concept about non-verbal reasoning. Let us see the types of problems coming before you.

Types of Problems

Problems Based on Mirror Image

In a mirror image, left part of an object becomes right part and right part becomes left part.

Remember the rule given below,

Left Hand Side (LH.S.) $\overset{{}}{leftrightarrows}$ Right hand Side (R.H.S.)

Example 1

 Actual Figure Mirror Image (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Explanation:

(i) Actual Figure::

Mirror Image:

Clearly, L.H.S. becomes R.H.S. and R.H.S. becomes L.H.S.

(ii) Actual Figure:

Mirror Image:

Clearly, L.H.S. becomes R.H.S. and R.H.S. becomes L.H.S.

(iii) Actual Figure:

Mirror Image:

In this case, the actual figure and its mirror image both will be same because there is no difference in the L.H.S. and the R.H.S. sides of the figure. Hence, in actual sense, the L.H.S. does become the R.H.S. and the R.H.S. does become the L.H.S., but this change does not appear to you. Therefore, remember the following rule.

(iv) Actual Figure:

Mirror Image:

Clearly, L.H.S, becomes R.H.S. and R.H.S. becomes L.H.S.

Example 2

 Actual Figure Mirror Image (i) 1 (ii) 8 (iii) B (iv) A (v) 4 (vi) G

Explanation:

(i) Actual Figure:

Mirror Image:

Clearly, LH.S. becomes R.H.S. and R.H.S. becomes L.H.S.

(ii) Actual Figure:

Mirror Image:

Here

L.H.S.= R.H.S. (See Rule X)

$\therefore$Actual figure and Mirror image will be similar

(iii) Actual Figure:

Mirror Image:

Clearly, L.H.S. becomes R.H.S. and R.H.S, becomes L.H.S.

(iv) Actual Figure:

Mirror Image:

L.H.S. = R.H.S. (See Rule x)

$\therefore$Actual figure and Mirror Image will be similar.

(v) Actual figure:

Mirror image:

Clearly, L.H.S. becomes R.H.S. becomes R.H.S.

(vi) Actual Figure:

Mirror Image:

Clearly, L.H.S. becomes R.H.S. and R.H.S. becomes L.H.S.

Choose the mirror image of the figure given below.

(a)                          (b)

(c)                      (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation: Option (c) is correct.

Let us see:

Clearly, in option (c) L.H.S. becomes R.H.S. and R.H.S. becomes L.H.S.

Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (c).

Which of the following boxes has wrong pair of actual and mirror image (1st figure is the actual figure)?

(a)             (b)

(c)             (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation: Option (d) is correct.

Let us see:

(A)   1st figure:

2nd figure:

Clearly, L.H.S. becomes R.H.S. and R.H.S. becomes L.H.S. Hence, 2nd is the mirror image of the 1st.

(B) 1st figure:

2nd figure:

Clearly, L.H.S. becomes R.H.S. and R.H.S. becomes L.H.S. Hence, 2nd is the mirror image of the 1st.

(C) 1st   figure:

:

2nd figure:

Clearly, L.H.S. becomes R.H.S. and R.H.S. becomes L.H.S. Hence, 2nd is the mirror image of the 1st.

(D) 1st figure:

2nd figure:

L.H.S. remains L.H.S. and R.H.S. remains R.H.S. in both the figures and the actual figure gets inverted vertically to be the 2nd figure. Hence, option (d) has wrong pair. The correct pair is given below.

Rest of the option is incorrect because of the correctness of option (d).

Problems Based on Water Image

In water image, the actual figure gets inverted vertically. In other words, in water image top becomes bottom and bottom becomes top but there is no change in L.H.S. and R.H.S. like mirror image. L.H.S. remains L.H.S. and R.H.S. remains R.H.S.

Remember the rule given below.

Example 1

 Actual Figure Water Image (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Explanation:

(i) Actual Figure: Water Image:

Clearly, top becomes bottom and bottom becomes top.

(ii) Actual Figure: Water Image:

Clearly, top becomes bottom and bottom becomes top.

(iii) Actual Figure: Water Image:

In this case, the actual figure and its water image both will be same because there is no difference in the top and the bottom parts of the actual figure. Therefore, in actual sense, the top becomes the bottom and the bottom becomes the top, but this change does not appear to you. Therefore, remember the following rule:

(iv) Actual Figure: Water Image:

Clearly, top becomes bottom and bottom becomes top.

Example 1

 Actual Figure Water Image (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

Explanation:

(i) Actual Figure: Water Image:

Clearly, top becomes bottom and bottom becomes top.

(ii) Actual Figure:  Water Image:

Clearly, top becomes bottom and bottom becomes top.

(iii) Actual Figure:  Water Image:

Here, Top = Bottom (See Rule: Y)

$\therefore$ Actual figure and water image will be similar

(iv) Actual Figure:  Water image:

Clearly, top becomes bottom and bottom becomes top.

(iv) Actual Figure: Water image:

Here, top = Bottom (See Rule: Y)

$\therefore$ Actual, figure and water image will be similar.

Find the water image of the given figure.

(a)                (b)

(c)                   (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation: Option (d) is correct.

Let us see:

Actual Figure:  Water Image:

Clearly, in (d), the top is the bottom of the actual figure and the bottom is the top of the actual figure.

Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (d),

Which of the following boxes has wrong pair of actual and water image (1st figure is the actual figure)?

(a)                   (b)

(c)                   (d)

(e) None of these

Option (b) is correct because this is a false pair.

Let us see:

(A) 1st  figure: 2nd  figure:

Clearly, top becomes bottom and bottom becomes top. Therefore, 2nd figure is the water image of the 1st figure. Hence, the pair is true.

(B) 1st  figure: 2nd  figure:

Here, the top of the 1st figure is not the bottom of the 2nd figure and also the bottom of the 1- figure is not the top of the 2- figure. Therefore, 2- figure can not be the water image of the 1st figure. The true pair will be as follows:

Hence, clearly, option (b) is a false pair

(C) 1st Figure: 2nd figure;

Clearly, top becomes bottom and bottom becomes top. Therefore 2nd figure is the water image of the 1st figure. Hence, the pair is true.

(D) 1st figure: 2nd figure:

Clearly, top becomes bottom and bottom becomes top. Therefore, 2nd figure is the water image of the 1st figure. Hence, the pair is true.

Rest of the option is incorrect because of the correctness of option (b).

Problems Based on Figure Series

A figure series is a sequence of many elements made of figures. Let us discuss some examples that make the concept more clear about figure series.

Example 1

Explanation: Figure 1 has one dark circle.

Figure 2 has two dark circles.

Figure 3 has three dark circles.

Figure 4 has four dark circles.

Clearly, every next figure has one more dark circle than the previous figure has.

Example 2

Explanation; Figures 1 and 2 have arrows and 2nd figure has two arrows more than the 1st figure has.

Figures 3 and 4 have dark circles and 4th figure has two dark circles more than the 3rd figure has. Following the same pattern figures 5 and 6 have triangles and 6th figure has two triangles more than the 5th figure has.

Example 3

Explanation: Arrow rotates one step anticlockwise in every next figure.

Remember

Example 4

Explanation: rotates one step clockwise in every next figure.

Example 5

Explanation: E rotates half step anticlockwise in every next figure.

Example 6

Explanation: rotates half step and one step alternately clockwise.

Example 7

Explanation: gets inverted in every next step.

Example 8

Explanation: One circle gets disappeared in every next figure.

Example 9

Explanation: A new element is added in every next figure.

Example 10

Explanation: One arrow gets inverted in every next figure and the process starts from extreme right

Note: The process may also start from extreme left.

Example 11

Explanation: In every next figure, one element becomes the mirror image of itself in other words in every next figure, the L.H.S. of one element becomes R.H.S. and R.H.S. becomes L.H.S. this process starts from top.

Note: The process may also start from bottom.

Example 12

Explanation: In 1st to 2nd figure, one element from left gets inverted vertically. In 2nd to 3rd figure, the one element from extreme right gets inverted vertically. From 3rd to 4th figure, the 2nd element from left gets inverted and from 4th to 5th figure, the 2nd element from right gets inverted. The same process takes place in 6th and 7th figure«

Note: In other series (series like example 11) same process may take place in top and bottom sequence.

Example 13

Explanation: S moves one step clockwise in every next figure.

O moves one step anticlockwise in every next figure.

A new element comes at the centre in every next figure.

Example 14

Explanation: and move one step anticlockwise in every next figure and there is no change in element at the centre.

Explanation: T and + sign move one step clockwise in every next step while the figure at the centre rotates one step anticlockwise in every next figure.

Note: In some other series, the figure at the centre may rotate clockwise.

Which of the following will be the 6th figure of the given series?

(a)                   (b)

(c)                   (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation: Option (b) is correct because every next figure has 2 elements more than the previous figure has. Figure 5 has 10 elements, hence figure 6 will definitely have 12 elements.

Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (b).

Find the figure that comes in the blank box.

(a)                         (b)

(c)                       (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation: Option (d) is correct because in every next figure

rotates one step anticlockwise.

Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (d).

Problems Based on Analogy

All of you already must have the clear concept on analogy (from chapter 1). Let us refresh it Analogy does mean similarity. When we talk of analogy in terms of reasoning then we say that analogy is a similar relationship in two or more things. In chapter 1, we discussed about the analogy of words. Following the same pattern, here, we are discussing about the analogy of figures. Analogy of figures does mean similar relationship in two or more figures. In the given problem, if two figures in a pair have certain relationship, then the same relationship will be presented by the figures of another pair.

Example 1

Explanation: In the 1st pair the arrow rotates one step clockwise and in the same wayrotates one step clockwise. Hence, the given pairs of figures exhibit analogy.

Example 2

Explanation: In the 1st pair, the 2nd figure has 2 circles more than the 1st figure has. In the same way, the 2nd figure in the 2nd pair has 2 circles more than the 1st figure has. Hence, the two pairs of figures exhibit analogy.

Example 3

Explanation: In the 1st pair, the 2nd figure is the mirror image of the 1st figure. Similarly, in the 2nd pair, 2nd figure is the mirror image of the 1st figure. Hence, the two pairs of figure exhibit analogy.

Example 4

Explanation: In the 1st pair, the 2nd figure is the water image of the 1st figure. Similarly, in the 2nd pair, 2nd figure is the water image of the 1st figure. Hence, the two pairs of figures exhibit analog

Example 5

Explanation: In the 1st pair, the 2nd figure is different from 1st one and in the same way in the 2nd pair, the 2nd figure is different from the 1st one. Hence, the two pairs of figures exhibit analogy.

Example 6

Explanation: In the 1st pair N and D move one step anticlockwise when they take place in the 2nd figure and there is no change in the element at the centre. Similarly, in the 2nd pair x and move one step anticlockwise and there is no change in the element at the centre. Hence, the two pairs of figures exhibit analogy.

Note: The same changes may take place in clockwise direction.

Example 7

Explanation: In the 1st pair, the element at the centre gets converted into a new element when comes from 1st to 2nd figure and other two elements move one step clockwise. Similarly, in the 2nd pair, a new element comes at the centre and the other two elements move one step clockwise. Hence, the two pairs of figures exhibit analogy.

Example 8

Explanation: The circle takes place at opposite corner in the 2nd figure of the 1st pair and a new element in the form of an arrow comes in place of circle. Similarly, S takes place at opposite corner in the 2nd figure of the 2nd pair and a new element in the form of T comes in place of S. Hence, the both pairs of figures exhibit analogy.

What replaces the blank box (apply analogy)?

(a)                      (b)

(c)                       (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation: Option (a) is correct because in the 1st pair, the dark circle takes place in opposite direction when it comes in the 2nd figure. In the same way, in the 2nd pair, the arrow takes place in opposite direction when it comes from 1st to 2nd figure.

Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (a).

Find the 2nd figure of the 2nd pair (apply analogy).

(a)                      (b)

(c)                       (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation: Option (c) is correct because in the 1st pair, the element in the 1st figure rotates half step clockwise to be the 2nd figure. The 2nd pair will follow the similar logic.

Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (c).

What comes next in the given series?

(a)                      (b)

(c)                       (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation: Option (b) is correct because in every next figure/ the dark circle moves one step clockwise and there is no change in the element at the center.

Rest of the option is incorrect because of the correctness of option (B).

What is the water image of the figure in the box?

(a)                      (b)

(c)                       (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation: Option (d) is correct because it is vertically inverted figure of the actual figure.

Let us see:

Actual Figure; ;    Option (d);

Clearly top of the actual figure becomes the bottom of option (d) and the bottom of the actual figure becomes the top of the option (d). Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (d).

Replace the blank box (apply analogy).

(a)                     (b)

(c)                     (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation: Option (b) is correct because in the 1st pair, 2nd figure is the mirror image of the 1st. Similarly, in the 2nd pair, 2nd figure will be mirror image of the 1st.

Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (b).

Choose the missing figure in the given series.

(a)                       (b)

(c)                       (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation: Option (b) is correct because in the 1st pair, 2nd figure is the mirror image of the 1st. Similarly, in the 2nd pair, 2nd figure will be mirror image of the 1st.

Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (b).

Choose the missing figure in the given series.

(a)                    (b)

(c)                    (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation: Option (d) is correct because in option (d) L.H.S. is the R.H.S. of the actual figure and R.H.S. is the L.H.S. of the actual figure.

Let us see:

Actual Figure:

Option (d);

Option (d);

Clearly, option (d) is the mirror image of the actual figure.

Rest of the options is incorrect because of the correctness of option (d).

Snap Test

Example

Select a figure from the figures given in options (a), (b), (c) and (d) which will continue the same series as established by the given five problem figures.

(a)                    (b)

(c)                   (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation: In first figure/ it is a pentagon with arrow head.

In second figure, it is a pentagon without arrow head.

In fourth figure, it is a square without arrow head.

In fifth figure, it is a triangle with arrow head.

In sixth figure, it is a triangle without arrow head.

Example

Which figure will replace the question mark (?) in the second pair on the right of :: in the same way as the first pair on the left of :: ?

(a)               (b)

(c)               (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation: The whole figure is divided into 8 parts from 2 parts.

Example

Look at the figure below. Which of the figure is different from the rest?

(a)                (b)

(c)                (d)

(e)

Explanation: Figure in option in (A), (B), (D) and (E) are two similar triangles squares and circles, respectively, but figure in option (C) is of two different shapes.

Example

Find out the alternative figure which contains the given figure (X) as its part.

(a)             (b)

(c)             (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation: The given figure (X) is exactly embedded in figure (A).

Example

Find which out of the figures given in options (A), (B), (C) and (D can be formed from the pieces given in figure (X).

(a)             (b)

(c)               (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation:

The parts of figures given in option (d) are in figure (X).

Example

Select the option which has the same components as the given figure (X).

(a)                 (b)

(c)                 (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation: Components of given figure (X) and figure given in option (C) are exactly the same.

Example

Choose the correct mirror image of the given figure.

(a)               (b)

(c)                (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation:

Example

Which one of the following is correct water image of the given figure?

(a)                 (b)

(c)                (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation:

Example

Which of the following figures has no change in its water image?

(a)                      (b)

(c)                     (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation:

Example

Select a figure from the following options which will continue the series as estabilished by the four problem figures.

(a)             (b)

(c)               (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation; In each next figure a new triangle inside appears with alternate shaded.

Example

Select a figure from the four option that has the same conditions of the placement of the dost as in figure (X).

(a)                  (b)

(c)               (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation:

 A $\times$ $\times$ B √ √ C √ $\times$ D √ $\times$

Hence, the only figure given in option (B) satisfies the conditions.

Example

Pair of figures on the either side of :: has a certain relationship. Identify the relationship between pair of figures and choose the missing figure.

(a)                (b)

(c)                 (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation: The outer figures interchange their places and size and also upper shaded part changes in lower shaded part inside the figure.

Example
Find out which of the following figures completes the given figure matrix?

(a)                 (b)

(c)                 (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation: left side figure and right side figures are mirror images to each other and interchange of colours.

Example

A transparent sheet (X) with a design and a dotted line on it is given. Choose the correct figure from the options that is the folded from of the sheet (X).

(a)             (b)

(c)             (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation:

When the transparent sheet folded, the result is as follow:

Example

A set of a three figures (X), (Y) and (Z) showing a sequence of folding of a piece of paper has been cut. Select a figure from the options which should closely resemble the unfolded from of paper.

(a)            (b)

(c)            (c)

(e) None of these

Explanation:

Steps for unfolded form of paper are as follow:

Example

Choose the correct mirror image of the given figure.

(a)            (b)

(c)             (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation:

Mirror image of the given figure is as follow:

Example

Which one of the following is correct water image of the given figure?

(a)           (b)

(c)           (d)

(e) None of these

Explanation:

Example

Figure (X) is exactly embedded in any one of the four (A), (B), (C) and (D). find the option which contain figure (X) as its part.

(a)            (b)

(c)             (d)

(e) None of these

Example

Select the option in which all the components of the key figure (X) are available.

(a)            (b)

(c) (d)

(e) None of these

Example

Fund out which of the answer figure (A), (B), (C) and (D) completes the given figure matrix?

(a)             (b)

(c)               (d)

(e)

Example

A transparent sheet X with a design and a dotted line on it is given. Choose the correct figure from the four options that is the folded from of the sheet X.

(a)             (b)

(c)             (d)

(e) None of these

Example

Figure (A) and (B) respectively shows the two consecutive folds of the paper. Figure (C) shows the cut on the fold paper. Choose on figure from the four options that is the unfolded form of the sheet.

(a)               (b)

(c)               (d)

(e) None of these

Example

Choose the correct mirror image of the figure given below. .

(a)                  (b)

(c)                  (d)

(e) None of these

Example

Identify the correct water image of the given figure.

(a)          (b)

(c)        (d)

(e) None of these

Example

A series of figures is given below. One figure of this series is missing. Fill in the blanks to complete this series.

(a)             (b)

(c)             (d)

(e)

Example

Given pair of figures on the either side of :: has a certain relationship. Identify the relationship between pair of figures and choose the missing figure.

(a)               (b)

(c)                (d)

(e)

Summary

• Non-Verbal reasoning has no language. It is based on figures.
• Under the non-verbal reasoning, we study about water image, mirror image, figure series and analogy.
• Water image of an object is its vertically opposite image.
• In water image, the top of an object becomes the bottom and the bottom becomes the top.
• Mirror image of an object is its horizontally opposite image.
• In mirror image of an object, L.H.S. becomes R.H.S. and R.H.S. becomes L.H.S..HHh
• A figure series is a sequence of many elements made of figures.

In analogy based non-verbal problems, if the figures given in one pair follow a certain pattern, then the same pattern is followed by the figures in another pair.t

Other Topics

Notes - Non-Verbal

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