Notes - Enviromental Conservation

Category : 4th Class

Environmental Conservation

Natural Resources: Nature gives us many things. For example, forest, sun, wind, water, minerals, land, etc.

The things that we get from nature is coiled natural resources.

TYPES OF NATURAL RESOURCES

1.            RENEWABLE RESOURES

Renewable resources are the resources that are replenished by the environment over relatively short periods of time.

Think of this like the ice cube maker in your refrigerator. As you take some ice out. More ice is formed. If you take a lot of ice out. it takes a little more time to refill the tray but not a very long time at all. Even if you completely emptied the ice cube tray, it would probably take only a few hours to refill that ice tray. Renewable resources in the natural environment work the same way.

Solar energy

Solar power from the sun is renewable as we won't "use up" all the sunlight from the sun.

Do you know

•             Biogas is produced by breaking down the organic material in an oxygen free environment with the help of enzymes.

Wind

Wind is also a renewable source of energy. It cannot stopped or blocked by humans.

Geothermal energy

It is a renewable resource that provides heat from the earth.

Intersecting Facts

•            Geothermal energy makes a minimal environmental impact.
•            Human have enjoyed geothermal energy in the form of not springs for thousands of years

Plants

Plants grown for food and manufactured products area renewable resources. Trees used for timber; cotton use for clothes; and food crops, such as corn and wheat, can be replanted and regrown after the harvest is collect.

Animals

Animals are also considered a renewable resource beer like plants, you can breed them to make more. Livestock like cows, pigs and chickens all fall into this category.

2.          NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES

Any natural resource from the earth that exists in life supply and cannot be replaced, if it is completely used is called a non-renewable resource, most fossil fuels, such as oil, natural gas, and coal are considered non-renewable resources. Their formation takes billions of years.

Non-renewable fuels like oil, coal, and natural gas still the primary source of all the power general the world due to their high energy content. Beside environmental impact of burning fossil fuels, the environmental impact of non-renewable resources can also be damaging.

As non-renewable resources become limited in supply cost to obtain them will continue to rise. This priori will eventually hit the end users, who use these resources on a daily basis.

After a point, there will be a shift from these expensive non-renewable resources to other cheaper alter energy resources.

Fossil Fuels

Fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas) were formed animals and plants that lived millions of years ago plants that lived millions of years ago. Converted the flight energy into chemical energy through the process photosynthesis.

This 'solar energy was (and still is) transferred down the food chain in animals, and when living organisms die, the chemical energy within them was trapped.

Coal

Coal is a solid form of fossil fuel. It is obtained by the process of mining. Coal contains the energy stored by plants that lived millions of years ago in swampy forests. The plants were covered by layers of dirt and rock. These overs created the heat and pressure, which turned the ants into coal.

Oil

Oil is a liquid fossil fuel that can be dark brown, yellow even green. Oil is used not just for transportation but so in manufacturing of many different products such as plastics, tyres and synthetic material such as polyester.

Natural Gas

This is a fossil fuel in the form of a gas. It is often found under the oceans and near oil deposits. Natural gas is used for cooking and heating as well as making a number products such as plastics, fertilisers, and medicines.

CLIMATE

The average weather condition of a place, taken over a long period of time, is called climate of that place.

Interesting Fact

•             Every 40,000 year, the Earth change positions and this cause climate change

TYPES OF CLIMATE

1.    Tropical climate

This climate is characterised by high temperature. The average temperature of tropical climate is.

2.    Dry Climate

This climate is characterised by the presence of very low precipitation throughout the year.

3.    Continental Climate

This climate is characterised by average temperature of abovesummer; the average temperature in winter lies below

FACTORS AFFECTING THE CLIMATE OF A PLACE

The climate of a place is affected by factors given below

1.            Latitude ( Distance from the equator )

Latitude of a place is the measure of its distance from the equator. The latitude of a location determines the amount of sunlight that a location receives. The higher your latitude, the less sunlight you will receive throughout the year, and the cooler will be your climate. Locations near the equator receive vast amounts of sunlight throughout the year and as a result are warm year round. Locations near the poles get very little sunlight and as a result ore cool year round.

2.            Altitude

The altitude of a place is measured as its height above the sea level. Altitude affects the climate of the place. In general, more the altitude, colder is the place. While places at sea level have an equitable climate throughout the year, places situated in mountainous regions experience very low temperatures.

3.            Distribution of water and Land

The distribution of water and land across the surface of the earth is another important factor that regulates climate. Water responds to temperature change much more slowly than the land does. That means water takes more time to heat as well as cool down. As a result, locations near the oceans experience milder changes in climate.

4.            Circulation of water and air

Wind may be cold, dry, humid or warm. The nature and direction of wind blowing over a place affects its climate. Stormy winds like cyclones, thunderstorms and tornadoes alter the climatic conditions of a place. Monsoon winds bring the moisture-laden rains to land.

5.            Circulation of water and air

Another important factor is the circulation of water and air. The molecules of water and air are in constant motion in both the atmosphere as well as in the oceans. These motions carry heat around the world in regular patterns. Warm air and water are transported up towards the poles while cool air and water are transported down towards the equator.

Interesting Fact

•             Many countries have signed agreements aimed at reducing greenhouse gases. One suce agreements is Kyoto protocol

6.    Mountains

'Mountains can often act as barriers, diverting wind and Moisture, affecting the climate in the areas around it. The side of a mountain facing the wind will have a climate very different from that of the other side of the mountain. Often mountains create a vast shadow, preventing rain to fall.

WEATHER

Weather is a condition of the atmosphere. Weather may not or cold, wet or dry. Weather keeps on changing. The weather depends on the sun, wind, clouds and rain.

FACTORS AFFECTING WEATHER CONDITIONS

i.                Distance from the sun: Sun is like a hot ball of fire. The planet which is closer to the Sun is much hotter than the planet farther away from it. Earth is the third planet from the Sun. Its distance from the Sun slays a major role in determining the temperature on the Earth's surface and hence, weather.

ii.                Rotation of Earth: Rotation of Earth on its axis causes day and night on Earth.

The imaginary line, passing through the north and south poles of the Earth is called the axis of rotation. The Earth completes one rotation on its axis in about 24 hours. This causes day and night on Earth.

iii.             Revolution of Earth causes change in the season. Apart from its rotating motion, the Earth also revolves around the Sun. The movement of the Earth around the Sun is called revolution of the Earth. The Earth revolves around the Sun on an elliptical orbit at speed of 29.79 km/sec. At this speed, it takes $365\frac{1}{4}$ days to complete one revolution round the Sun. As the Earth moves around the Sun during the year, the amount of light that each part of Earth receives in length. When the Earth's axis points towards the Sun, it is summer for that hemisphere. When the Earth's axis points away. Winter is experienced.

WEATHER FORCAST

Nowadays, with the help of satellites we are able to advance information about the weather. This information is called the weather forecast.

Newspapers, radios and television update us about weather. The prior information of weather helps farmer?s pilots, sailors, and fishermen who live near the seashore to protect life and property.

How do meteorologists forecast the weather?

Weather forecasting is a prediction of what the weather will be like in an hour, the next day, or next week. There several methods, by which accurate forecasts can be made up to seven days in advance. For example, Balloons weather satellite, radar, etc.

GREENHOUSE EFFECT

Earth receives a large amount of energy from the sun, which emits UV (ultra violet) radiations, visible light, and Infra-red (IR) radiations. Some of the solar radiations reflected away by the atmosphere and earth, while of the Infrared rays are absorbed and re-emitted directions by the greenhouse gas molecules. This he keeping our planet warm and thus, helps in human survival

Gases that cause the greenhouse effect are responsible for increasing the temperature of the Earth and are thus,

Contributing to the phenomenon called global warming.

Global Warming

Global warming refers to an average increase in the earth?s temperature, which in turn causes changes in climate.

CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING

Global warming occurs as a result of the increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapour. An increase in the amount of greenhouse gases can lead to an excessive increase in the earth's temperature, leading to global warming. Global warming is a result of industrialization, burning of fossil fuels, and deforestation.

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