11th Class Chemistry Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

  • question_answer 100)   Define ionisation enthalpy. Discuss the factors affecting ionisation enthalpy of the elements and its trends in periodic table.


      Ionisation enthalpy It is defined as the "minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron from an isolated gaseous atom" \[M(g)-{{M}^{+}}(g){{e}^{-}}{{I}_{1}}\] = First ionisation enthalpy Similarly, second and third electrons are also removed by providing successive ionisation enthalpy. Factors on which Ionisation Enthalpy Depends: (i) Size of the atom: The larger the atomic size, smaller is the value of ionisation enthalpy. In a larger atom, the outer electrons are far away from the nucleus and thus force of attraction with which they are attracted by the nucleus is less and hence can be easily removed. Ionisation enthalpy \[\propto \]\[\frac{1}{Atomic\text{ }size}\] (ii) Screening effect: Higher the screening effect, the lesser is the value of ionisation enthalpy as the screening effect reduces the force of attraction towards nucleus and hence the outer electrons can be easily removed. Ionisation enthalpy \[\propto \frac{1}{Screeing\,effect}\] (iii) Nuclear charge: As the nuclear charge increases among atoms having same number of energy shells, the ionisation enthalpy increases because the force of attraction towards nucleus increases. Ionisation enthalpy \[\propto \] Nuclear charge (iv) Half-filled and fully filled orbitals: The atoms having half-filled and fully filled orbitals are comparatively more stable, hence more energy is required to remove the electron from such atoms. The ionisation enthalpy is rather higher than the expected value in case of such an atom. Ionisation enthalpy \[\propto \] Stable electronic configuration (v) Shape of orbital: The s-orbital is more close to nucleus than the p-orbital of the same orbit. Thus, it is easier to remove electron from a p-orbital in comparison to s-orbital. In general, the ionisation enthalpy follows the following order: (s > p > d > f) orbitals of the same orbit. Variation of ionisation enthalpy in the periodic table In general, the ionisation energy decreases down the group due to increase in atomic size. On the other hand, the ionisation energy increases across the period from left to right, again due to decrease in atomic size from left to right.

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