to get pentavalency, 3s-orbital is unpaired and the electron is shifted to 3d-orbital.
Now in the excited state the five orbitals involving one s-, one d- and three
p-orbitals undergo hybridization giving birth to five hybrid orbitals which
overlap with five chlorine atoms forming five sigma bonds. Trigonal bipyramid
structure comes into existence having three equatorial and two axial bonds.
The axial bonds are longer than
the equatorial bonds on account of greater repulsion on the axial bond pairs of
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