11th Class Chemistry Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

  • question_answer 42) Describe the hybridization in case of\[PC{{l}_{5}}\]. Why are the axial bonds longer as compared to equatorial bonds?

    Answer:

    P-atom has configuration: \[1{{s}^{2}},2{{s}^{2}}2{{p}^{6}},3{{s}^{2}},3p_{x}^{1}3p_{y}^{1}3p_{z}^{1}.\] to get pentavalency, 3s-orbital is unpaired and the electron is shifted to 3d-orbital. Now in the excited state the five orbitals involving one s-, one d- and three p-orbitals undergo hybridization giving birth to five hybrid orbitals which overlap with five chlorine atoms forming five sigma bonds. Trigonal bipyramid structure comes into existence having three equatorial and two axial bonds. The axial bonds are longer than the equatorial bonds on account of greater repulsion on the axial bond pairs of electrons.


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