JEE Main & Advanced Chemistry Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Tetra-Halides (Carbon tetrachloride, \[CC{{l}_{4}}\])

Tetra-Halides (Carbon tetrachloride, \[CC{{l}_{4}}\])

Category : JEE Main & Advanced

It is the most important tetrahalogen derivative of methane.


(1) Manufacture


(i) From methane :


\[C{{H}_{4}}+4C{{l}_{2}}\xrightarrow{400{}^\circ C}CC{{l}_{4}}+4HCl\]


(ii) From carbon disulphide :




\[{{S}_{2}}C{{l}_{2}}\] further reacts with \[C{{S}_{2}}\] to form more of carbon tetrachloride.




Carbon tetrachloride is separated out by fractional distillation. It is washed with sodium hydroxide and then distilled to get a pure sample.


(iii) From propane :


\[{{C}_{3}}{{H}_{8}}+9C{{l}_{2}}\underset{\text{70-100}}{\mathop{\xrightarrow{\text{400}{}^\circ C}}}\,\underset{\text{(Liquid)}}{\mathop{\underset{\text{Carbon}\,\text{tetrachloride}}{\mathop{CC{{l}_{4}}}}\,}}\,+\underset{\text{(Solid)}}{\mathop{\underset{\text{Hexachloroethane}}{\mathop{{{C}_{2}}C{{l}_{6}}}}\,}}\,+8HCl\]


(2) Physical properties


(i) It is a colourless liquid having characteristic smell.


(ii) It is non-inflammable and poisonous. It has boiling point \[{{77}^{o}}C\].


(iii) It is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.


(iv) It is an excellent solvent for oils, fats, waxes and greases.


(3) Chemical properties : Carbon tetrachloride is less reactive and inert to most organic reagents. However, the following reactions are observed.


(i) Reaction with steam (Oxidation) :


\[CC{{l}_{4}}+{{H}_{2}}O\xrightarrow{500{}^\circ C}\underset{\text{Phosgene (Carbonyl chloride)}}{\mathop{COC{{l}_{2}}}}\,+2HCl\]


(ii) Reduction :




(iii) Hydrolysis :




(iv) Reaction with phenol (Reimer-tiemann reaction) :



(4) Uses


(i) It is used as a fire extinguisher under the name pyrene. The dense vapours form a protective layer on the burning objects and prevent the oxygen or air to come in contact with the burning objects.


(ii) It is used as a solvent for fats, oils, waxes and greases, resins, iodine etc.


(iii) It finds use in medicine as helmenthicide for elimination of hook worms.

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