12th Class Biology Domestication of animals. For enhancement of Food production Biological Methods Of Pest Control

Biological Methods Of Pest Control

Category : 12th Class

Biopesticides are living organisms of their products used for killing pests of interfering with their biological processes.

Bioherbicides : Biological control of weeds involves

(1) Utilization of insects which would feed selectively on weeds and (2) use of certain microorganisms which produce diseases in weeds and eliminate them. Much of the work using insects for biological control has been done in North America. In India and Australia, the overgrown of cacti was checked by the introduction of cochineal insect (Cactoblastis cactorum). The first bioherbicide was mycoherbicide, based on the fungus Phytophthora palmivora, and was developed in 1981.

Bioinsecticides : Bioinsecticides include :

(1) Pathogens, parasites and predators

(2) Sterilization strategy

(3) Insect hormones

(4) Natural insecticides

Aphids have been controlled by the use of ladybugs or praying mantis. Screw-worm was eradicated by releasing sterile males (sterilized by irradiation) at the time of mating to compete with natural fertile population. Introduction of juvenile hormones at inappropriate time results in the early death of insect pests.

Natural insecticides are obtained mostly from plants and occasionally from microbes.

 

Botanical insecticides and their sources

S.No.

Insecticide

Source

1.

Nicotine

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

2.

Pyrethroids

Chrysauhemum cinerarifolium

3.

Rotenone

Roots of Derris elliptica

4.

Sabadilla

Seeds of Schoenocaulom officinale

5.

Ryania

Roots and stem of Ryamia speciosa

6.

Azadirachtin

Seeds of Azadirachta indica (Neem or Margosa)

 

Rotenone is a natural insecticide.

One of the earliest pesticides employed by human was Margosa (Neem) leaves.

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