• # question_answer 154) Chemiosmotic theory of ATP synthesis in the chloroplasts and mitochondria is based on A)  Membrane potentialB)  Accumulation of $\text{N}{{\text{a}}^{\text{+}}}$ionsC)  Accumulation of ${{\text{K}}^{+}}$ionsD)  Proton gradient

The enzyme responsible for oxidative phosphorylation is ATP synthase. ATP synthase is located in the ${{F}_{1}}$component of ${{F}_{0}}-{{F}_{1}}$or elementary particles. ATP synthase becomes active in ATP formation only where there is a proton gradient having higher concentration of ${{H}^{+}}$or protons on the${{F}_{0}}$side as compared to${{F}_{1}}$side. Increased proton concentration is produced in the outer chamber of outer surface of inner mitochondrial membrane by the pushing of protons with the help of energy liberated by the passage of electrons from one carrier to another.