|(i) Art and poetry, stories and music helped to express and shape nationalist feelings.|
|(ii) Romanticism, a cultural movement sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiments. Romantic artists and poets generally criticised the glorification of reason and science and instead focused on emotions, intuitions and mystical feelings. Their effort was to create a sense of shared collective heritage, a common cultural past as the basis of nation.|
|For example, the painting 'The massacre at Chios' by Eugene Delacroix, a romantic painter depicts an incident in which 20000 Greeks were killed by the Turks. The painter sought to appeal to the emotions of the spectators and create a sympathy for the Greeks.|
|(iii) Other Romantics felt that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people Das Volk'. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularised. So collecting and recording these forms of folk culture was essential to project nation building. For example. Karol Kurpinski celebrated nationalist struggle through Operas and music turning folk dances into nationalist symbols. These carried the nationalist message to illiterate masses also.|
|(iv) Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russia occupied Poland the Polish language was replaced by Russian in schools and other places. In 1831, there was an armed rebellion again.st this. Though suppressed, the use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.|
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