Ans. Following financial instruments are used in international financing: (a) Global Depository Receipts (GDRs): The local currency shares of a company are delivered to the depository bank. The depository bank issues depository receipts against these shares. When these depository receipts are denominated in US , they are called GDR. It is a bank certificate issued in more than one country for shares in a foreign company. The shares are held by a foreign branch of an international bank. The shares trade as domestic shares, but are offered for sale globally through the various bank branches. A financial instrument used by private markets to raise capital denominated in either U.S. dollars or Euros. These instruments are called EDRs when private markets are attempting to obtain Euros. It is a negotiable instrument and can be traded freely like any other security. A holder of GDR can convert it into any other security at any time. Holders of GDR are eligible only for capital appreciation and dividend but no voting rights. (b) American Depository Receipts (ADRs): When a company in the USA issues depository receipts, they are termed as American Depository Receipts (ADRs). These are bought and sold in stock markets of the USA. They are similar to GDR except that these can be issued only to American citizens and these can be listed and traded on a stock exchange of USA. (c) Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds (FCCBs): Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds are equity linked debt securities that are to be converted into equity or depository receipts after a specific period. Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds are listed and traded in Foreign Stock Exchanges. A holder of Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds has the option of converting them into equity shares at a pre- determined price. Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds are issued in foreign currency. Their rate of interest is lower than rate of any other similar non-convertible debt instrument.
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